EVALUATION OF OIL PALM SITE SUITABILITY USING of Oil Palm Site Suitability... · evaluation of oil

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  • EVALUATION OF OIL PALM SITE SUITABILITY USING

    ANALYTICAL HIERARCHY PROCESSING DEVELOPED

    INDEXAND GEOGRAPIDCAL INFORMATION SYSTEM

    APPLICATION AT KG. BERATOKAND KG. TAPAH,

    SAMARAHAN

    p '

    KhoAi Ling

    Master of Environmental Science

    (Land Use and Water Resources Management)

    2011

  • Pusat Khidmat MakJumat Aka emik UNIVERSm MALAYSIA SARA\¥'

    P.KHIDMAT MAKLUMAT AKADEMIK

    111111111 Ili'rnilllllllll 1000246515

    EVALUATION OF OIL PALM SITE SUITABILITY USING JI

    ANALYTICAL HIERARCHY PROCESSING DEVELOPED INDEX AND

    GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMAnON SYSTEM APPLICATION AT

    KG. BERATOK AND KG. TAPAH, SAMARAHAN

    KHOAILING

    A thesis submitted

    In fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of

    Master of Environmental Science

    (Land Use and Water Resources Management)

    . "

    Faculty of Resource Science and Technology UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA SARA W AK

    2011

  • _

    7

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

    I would like to take this opportunity to extend my deepest thanks, gratitude and appreciations to the following persons and individuals. Without their assistance, advises, support and knowledge sharing, my dissertation would not completed successfully.

    My project supervisor Professor Dr. Wang Yin Chai of Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology for accepting me sincerely as his student despite being the fact that I was with zero knowledge in GIS at the very beginning of this project. His patience, enthusiasm, understanding and sharing of wisdom in helping me with my project has nearly saturated me not only with new learning knowledge but most importantly is the valuable experience gained from this work. My gratitude also goes to his research assistance, Mr. Lee Guan Heng for his assistance and discussion of ideas during the process of working out my project.

    My project co-supervisor, Associate Professor Dr. Gabriel Tonga Noweg of Faculty of Resource Science and Technology for his concern throughout my project's progress. His environmental profession skills had guide confidently as I go along to do my project.

    Professor Dr. Wan Sulaiman Wan Harun of Faculty of Resource Science and Technology for the idea and guidance in soil sampling knowledge for my dissertation.

    Mr. Lah Jau Uyo, Head of Soil Management Branch, Agriculture Department of Sarawak, for granting and providing the soil map and agricultural capability map of Kampung Beratok and Kampung Tapah study areas for lPY perusal in this project. Mr. Ling Kok Sui, GIS research assistant from Department of Agriculture for helping in generating the soil map of my study areas.

    Mr. John Sabang, Research Officer of Sarawak Research Centre, Sarawak Forestry Corporation for guidance in soil sampling analysis methodology and procedures. Madam Hajarin for her patience and willingness in teaching me for doing soil analysis tasks.

    Local peoples from Kampung Beratok and Kampung Tapah for their kindness for guiding me to the area for my soil sampling areas.

    Colleagues of the Cohort 7 CML Group SLUSE-M programme for their moral support. Amy Sim; Sim Siaw Fen, K~eh Hsiao Chin, Reena Sabrina, Abang Junaidi and Madam Rahmah Biak.

    Finally, my family and friends who have shown consistent love, prayer, support, encouragement and inspiration throughout the SLUSE programme.

    ---- &..-----------------,----==-----=~ .~-- ------ -

  • ABSTRACT

    Oil Palm Site Suitability Evaluation using Analytical Hierarchy Processing Developed Index and

    Geographical Information System (GIS) Application at Kg. Beratok and Kg. Tapah

    ~roblem of unsuitable land use and irregular development of agricultural areas result in the reduction in cultivation. Hence, appropriate method of land suitability evaluation can provide sustainable management

    agricultural lands for policy maker for a project planning and managemend In this study, evaluation on the oil palm suitability is conducted by adopting the existing oil palm index formulated by multi criteria evaluation method in GIS and Analytical Hierarchy Processing (AHP) and Pairwise Comparison method

    for factor ranking and weighting. Seven environmental factors affecting the suitability of oil palm growth considered in the oil palm index are soil texture, slope, soil drainage, soil depth, groundwater table depth,

    total organic carbon, and water deficit. Field measurement was conducted using simple random sampling method at Kg. Beratok and Kg. Tapah .. The soil structures were studied and the samples were analyzed in the laboratory. Result of studies obtained through the ground reference verification and analysis were

    inserted into the linear combination method. Inverse Distance Weighted (lOW) interpolation method in the ArcGlS were use for generating the spatial information regarding the site suitability for oil palm plantation as to predict the cell values for location which were lack of sampling points due to the

    limitation for inaccessibility. The results indicate that the Oil Palm Suitability map generated had shown majority of the study area fell into moderate suitable whereas, about 2587.0 hectares (73.8%) of the land

    was moderately suitable, while 383.6 hectares (11.0%) ~s suitable and 534.3 hectares (15.2%) is unsuitable for the oil palm planting respectively. The results indicated that the application multi-factor evaluation using AHP in identifying sites suitability for plantation could provide a superior database and guide map for decision makers to make a precise judgment for better output. Thus result in project cost saving in terms of extra intensive inputs and promising a higher productivity of oil palm yield in return.

    11

  • ABSTRAK

    ;

    Penilaian Kesesuaian Tapak Penanaman Kelapa Sawit menggunakan Indeks kaedah Analytical

    Hierarchy Processing dan Aplikasi Sistem Maklumat Geografi (GIS) di Kpg. Beratok dan Kpg.

    Tapah, Sarawak

    Masalah penggunaan tanah yang tidak terancang disebabkan oleh pembangunan kawasan

    pertanian mengakibatkan hasil tanaman semakin berkurangan. Oleh itu, kaedah penilaian tapak

    penanaman dapat memberikan manfaat kepada pemilik tanah pertanian bagi perancangan projek

    dan pengurusan. Kajian terhadap kesesuaian tapak penanaman kelapa sawit adalah merujuk kepada indeks kelapa sawit yang dirumuskan dengan mengaplikasikan kriteria penilaian multi

    GIS dan Analytical Hierarchy Processing (AHP) dan kaedah Perbandingan Berpasangan untuk faktor kedudukan dan penimbangan. Tujuh faktor persekitaran yang mempengaruhi kesesuaian

    pertumbuhan kelapa sawit dipertimbangkan dalam indeks kelapa sawit adalah tekstur tanah,

    kecerunan lereng, pengairan tanah, kedalaman tanah, kedalaman air tanah meja, jumlah organik

    karbon, dan defisit air. Pengukuran di tapak lapangan dilakukan dengan menggunakan kaedah

    penyampelan secara rawak bagi kawasan kajian, dan hasil keputusan analisis sampel tanah dimasukkan ke dalam kaedah gabungan linear. Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) menggunakan

    kaedah interpolasi dalam ArcGIS untuk menghasilkan maklumat kesesuaian lokasi untuk ladang

    kelapa sawit untuk meramal nilai sel untuk lokasi yang kurang penyampelan. Keputusan kajian menunjukkan peta indeks kelapa sawit mendapati kebanyakkan tanah berada keadaan "sederhana sesuai" iaitu 2587.0 hektar (73.8%) daripada kawasan kajian manakala 383.6 hektar (11.0%) berada dalam keadaan "sesuai" dan 534.3 hektar (15.2%) dalam keadaan "tidak sesuai" untuk penanaman kelapa sawit. Keputusan kajian menunjukkan bahawa aplikasi kepelbagaian faktor penilaian menggunakan

    AHP dalam mengenalpasti kesesuaian lokasi dapat memberikan data yang superior dan peta

    panduan bagi pihak pengurusan untuk membuat penilaian dan perancangan yang tepat demi

    menjimatkan kos projek dan menghasilkan produktiviti yang lebih tinggi.

    ,------ - ­

    III

  • P~~dmatMakJuma t Akademik m MALAYSIA SARAWAK

    TABLE OF CONTENTS .I

    Page ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ABSTRACT 11 ABSTRAK III TABLE OF CONTENTS IV

    APPENDIXES Vlll

    LIST OF FIGURES IX

    LIST OF TABLES Xl

    LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONOYMS XU

    CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

    1.1 Scenario of oil palm industry in Sarawak

    1.2 Land suitability for oil palm growth 2

    1.3 Major issues and general views 3

    1.4 Significance of the study 3

    1.5 Research problem statement 4

    1.6 Aim and objective ofstudy 4

    1.7 Scope of study 5

    1.8 Hypothesis 5

    CHAPTER 2: LITERA TURE REVIEW

    2.1 Best management practice and requirement for oil palm 6

    2.2 Determining site suitability for oil palm plantation 6

    ti

    2.3 EQA law and regulation for the EIA oil palm plantation 7

    development

    2.4 7 Current practice of the land capability classification system

    2.5 8 Available indexes for determining site suitability

    Selection of index and its origin 2.6 11

    IV

  • 2.7 Role ofGIS

    2.8 Application and importance of index

    GIS in oil palm plantation development 2.9

    2.10 Functions ofoil palm suitability index

    2.1 ) Environmental parameters in oil palm index (OP Index)

    2.11.1 Soil depth

    2.11.2 Soil texture

    2.11.3 Total organic carbon

    2.11.4 Ground water table depth and Soil draina