Kumpulan Skematik Elektronika 2
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w w w . e f y m a g . c o m104 mar ch 2008 electronics for you
Fig. 1: Glow plug controller
Fig. 2: Pin configurations of bs170 and bc548
GLOW PLuG CONTROLLER s.c. dwived
In diesel engines, the air in the cylinders is not hot enough to ignite the fuel under cold condi-tions. Therefore each cylinder of these
engines is fitted with an electric heater known as glow plug. A control circuit is necessary to optimise the functioning of glow plugs. It raises the air tem-perature inside the engine cylinder for quick and reliable starting, extended battery life and reduced diesel con-sumption.
The glow plug controller (Fig. 1) uses a simple timer circuit built around MOSFET T1 for reliability and simplic-ity. Momentary pushing of switch S2
charges capacitor C1 rapidly via resis-tor R1. When the voltage on capacitor C1 exceeds the threshold voltage of the gate (G) of MOSFET T1, it starts charging reservoir capacitor C2 and simultaneously energises relay RL1.
MOSFET T1 remains conducting as long as the voltage on C1 is greater than the threshold voltage of the MOS-FET gate.
The on time period depends on the value of capacitor C1 and resistor R2, which govern the discharge current of capacitor C2. The component values given here will produce on time of around 25 seconds. In effect, when you press switch S2 momentarily, the relay energises for about 25 seconds and
the glow plug gets the power supply through its contact.
The red LED (LED1) indicates that the heating process of glow plugs is
on. When the on time is over, the green LED (LED2) turns on for a while, followed by a short beep from the buzzer, which in-dicates that the engine is ready for starting. Glow plugs draw a heavy current, hence high-cur-
rent-rating contacts of an automotive relay are required.
Assemble the circuit on any gen-eral-purpose PCB and house in a suitable case. Connect the glow plug wire to the relay contact. 12V battery already available with the vehicle is used to power the circuit. Connect the piezobuzzer and LED1 and LED2 through an external connection and place it at a convenient location for the driver to operate.
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Raj K. GoRKhali
GuitaR EffEct PEdal PowERs.c. dwived
iconnecting points as shown in Fig. 2.
The circuit (Fig. 2) can be divided into two sections: power supply and signal handling. The power supply section is built around transformer X1, regulators 7805 and 7905, bridge recti-fier comprising diodes D1 through D4, and a few discrete components. The signal-handling circuit is built around two OP27 op-amps (IC3 and IC4).
The power supply of about 9V for the effect pedals is derived from step-down transformer X1. MOV1 is a metal-oxide varistor that absorbs any large spike in mains power.
IC 7905 (IC1) is a -5V low-power regulator. By using a 3.9V zener diode (ZD1) at its ground terminal, you get -8.9V output. The same technique is also applied to IC 7805 (IC2)a +5V regulator to get 8.9V. Use good-qual-ity components and heat-sinks for the
regulators. This supply is more than enough for the five effect pedals.
The greater the voltage drop across the regulator, the lower the output current potential. Resistors R1 and R2 provide a constant load to ensure that the regulators keep regulating. Capacitors C3 through C8 ensure that the supplies are as clean as possible. It is very important to use proper heat-sinks for IC1 and IC2. Otherwise, these could heat up.
Working of the circuit is simple. The input signal stage uses a basic differentiation amplifier to accept the incoming signal and a voltage fol-lower to buffer the output to the power amplifier. The differential amplifier is built around IC3. It works by effective-
ly looking at the signals presented to its inputs. If the input signals are of different amplitudes, IC3 amplifies the difference by a factor determined by R4/R3 (where R4=R6 and R3=R5). If the input signals have same ampli-tudes, these are attenuat-ed by the common-mode rejection ratio (CMRR) of the circuit. The value of CMRR is determined by the choice of the op-amp the auxiliary components used and circuit topolo-gy. You can use standard resistors. With the values shown, you get an overall gain of unity.
The combinat ion of resistor R7 and C13 serves as a passive low-pass filter, progressively attenuating unwanted high-frequency signals. The second op-amp (IC4)
Fig. 1: A typical guitar pedal switch
Fig. 2: Pedal power circuit
A friend of mine plays guitar with several guitar effect pedals. He had a problem with battery eliminators and cables of the pedals cluttering the stage and so he asked for help. The solution is simple as de-scribed here.
A small box is fitted to the rear of the amplifier providing a 9V output for the effect pedal. The amplifier section
gets 9V through a pedal switch (refer Fig. 1). This power out-put and guitar s igna l input lines are com-bined into a single unit with multi-way cable
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forms a simple voltage follower (its output follows its input), providing a low output impedance to drive into the standard power amplifier.
Assemble the circuit on a general-purpose PCB and fit it to the rear of an
amplifier. The unit must be compact, yet robust. So use a very sturdy alu-minium extrusion for the cabinet in or-der to neatly house the assembled PCB.
To ensure simple operation, there are only three connections to the unit.
First, mains power is tapped from the transformer. The second lead carries the 9V output to the amplifier. The third is the guitar signal input at the five-way socket for connection to the effect pedal.
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all about home Solar SyStemSKnow the right current controller, inverter and battery combination to get the most out of your PV solar panel
Going for home solar power is a wise decision as solar energy is not only natural but is free to us unlike any other source of elec-trical power. So you will be helping to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, home solar power systems need significant initial investment. So you have to be careful.
Unfortunately, for unscrupulous companies, consumer ignorance about photovoltaic (PV) solar power is often an opportunity to cheat. In fact, many vendors are in the solar business to chase your money with little interest in the technology, environmental benefits or your needs. Here is some informa-tion that will help you fortify yourself against being shortchanged.
PV solar modules convert energy from the sun into free and non-pol-luting DC power. Unfortunately, this power cannot be directly used due to varying light intensity of the sun over the day. You need to use a current controller to convert it into a constant voltage under all conditions of light.
The only controller type that you have to buy is the one that harvests the maximum solar energy from the sun. This is called maximum peak power tracking (MPPT) controller. MPPT helps you to harvest about 30 per cent more energy from the solar module than any other type. Solar panels are expensive and the MPPT controller costs maximum 10 per cent of the cost of the panel. Since only an MPPT con-troller gives 30 per cent more energy from the same panel, this investment
is fully justified. The sun shines bright during the
day. In India, often there is no electrici-ty even during the day for many hours. During daytime, the MPPT controller can directly feed DC into your inverter and you can use that AC power for feeding electric fans, television or com-puters. For this, you need only a small-capacity battery. The inverter directly uses the solar panel output to give you AC supply. If you are using it for of-fice, you need power mostly during the day, except for some time in the early morning and late evening. A small-size battery is good enough for this.
However, home users need solar power at night after the sun has set. For this, one needs to accumulate all the available solar energy during the day and then use it at night. In such a case, you need a battery with big enough capacity to accumulate all the available solar energy from the sun and deliver it to the inverter at night feeding your 230V AC loads like lights, fans, PCs and TVs.
Depending on your energy need at night, your supplier will recommend certain battery capacity; its voltage and ampere-hour (Ah) capacity. Small home inverters of 300-1500W rating usually work off one or two 12V lead-acid batteries depending on the invert-er power and its input voltage rating.
Electrical power and energy often confuse people. But it is easy to under-stand the difference between the two. Your CFL light, normal bulb, fan and TV are rated by their power consump-tion and the unit used is watt (W) or volt-ampere (VA). You can add all these to find out how much power you
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need to operate them. For example, your three CFL lights (16W3), a fan (40W) and a TV (60W) will add up to 150W. This is the minimum power rat-ing that you need for your inverter. It is necessary to buy an inverter with at least 50 per cent or even 100 per cent more capacity in watts.
However, for finding your energy needs, you need to multiply the watt rating of the appliance by the time in hours you need to use it. For instance, in the above example, if you need to run these appliances for five hours, your energy need is 150W5h = 750 Wh. So your inverter could be of 225-300W (continuous) rating but your energy need is higher.
It is important to remember that your battery capacity depends on your energy need. The battery has to be large enough to accumulate from the sun and store 750 Wh of energy and not 150W power as some people often misunderstand.
Your home inverter generally needs 12V or 24V DC input depending on what you buy. This is because lead-acid batteries are often rated at 12V. For 24V, you need to connect two of them in series.
Another rating of the battery is its capacity specified in Ah. A 40Ah battery means that it can deliver 8A for five hours, 2A for 20 hours, etc. In other words, its energy storage capac-ity is 12V40 Ah=480 Wh.
So if you need 750 Wh as in the example given above, you will need a 12V, 80Ah battery that can store 12x 80=960Wh energy for night use. Even here, it is essential to buy a battery with 50 to 60 per cent more capacity in order to ensure a longer battery life. Selection criteria is similar to that for a water tank capacity; buy always more than what you need.
So for the most economic size of the solar power system you need, calculate how many hours you may want to
use each of your appliances and find energy need of each by multiplying by its wattage rating. For example, using a 15W CFL light for four hours will require 60 Wh of energy. A 40W fan that you may use all night longsay, for ten hourswill require 400 Wh of energy. Add up energy needs of all the appliances to calculate your energy need in Wh.
Your PV solar modules are rated in peak watts. But, in practice, these, on an average, deliver only 70 to 75 per cent power (over about five hours) of the solar energy that you get to ac-cumulate from the sun. Therefore a panel rated at, say, 100Wp, will give you 70W for five hoursthat is, energy of 350 Wh (50.7100). So if your en-ergy need is 700 Wh, your PV module should be rated at 200Wp.
The author is ex-chairman, Electronics Commis-sion, government of India, and a former advisor to late Rajiv Gandhi
E L E C T R O N I C S F O R Y O U A U G U S T 2 0 0 7 9 7W W W . E F Y M A G . C O M
DIINFRARED FIRECRACKER IGNITER
F irecrackers are normally ignitedby using a matchstick or acandle. You have to run awayquickly after igniting the fuse of thefirecracker. This method of igniting
firecracker is unsafe, because the dan-ger of the firecracker bursting beforeyou reach a safe distance is alwaysthere.
The device described here uses re-mote control, usually used with TV re-ceivers or CD players, to burst the fire-cracker. Thus the firecracker can be ig-nited from a safe distance using thecircuit described below in conjunction
with the remote control.In the figure shown here, normally
the output of IC1 is low and greenLED2 is on and the red LED3 off.This indicates that the circuit isready for use. When any key on theremote control is pressed, output pin
3 of IRX1 (IR receiver moduleTSOP1738) goes low. This output isconnected to pin 2 of IC1 via LED1and resistor R4 to trigger themonostable operation of IC1.
The output of IC1 remains high fora period equal to 1.1R2C2. With thevalues of the components given in thecircuit diagram here, the period worksout to 3.5 seconds approximately. This
activates relay RL1 and red LED3glows and green LED2 turns off. Onstate of red LED3 indicates that thefirecracker is about to burst.
R7 is a small part of the element ofan electric heater (220V,1000W), which is kept awayfrom the electronic circuitand connected to the relaycontacts through a thickelectric cable. The resistancevalue of short length of theheater element (R7) is 3 to3.5 ohms. A current ofaround 4 amperes flowsthrough it when connectedto a 12V battery. Flow of 4Acurrent through R7 for 3.5seconds makes it red hot,which ignites the fire-cracker.
The circuit is poweredby a 12V, 7AH battery. IC2provides about 9V for theoperation of the circuit. The
circuit should be housed in a metalliccabinet to prevent it from being dam-aged by bursting of the firecracker. TheIR receiver and the two LEDs shouldbe fixed on the front panel of the cabi-net.
Wiring and relay used in the cir-cuit should be chosen such that theyare able to carry more than 5 amperesof current.
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dark gray, blue or even black. They come in various configurations and radiation patterns, but 5mm types with 15- to 40-degree patterns are the most popular.
Typically, IR LEDs run at around 1.3 to 1.7 volts, depending on the
LED current (typically 10 to 30 mA). However, this may vary with the type and manufacturer. Practically, IR il-luminators may have 6 or 60 to 100 or more LEDs, depending on the output needed.
The circuit (refer Fig. 1) can be divided into three parts: ambient light sensor, relay driver and IR LEDs. The ambient light sensor is built around multiturn linear potmeter VR1 and light-dependent resistor LDR1. The relay driver section is built around transistors T1 through T3. The IR LEDs section is built around LED1 through LED40.
The light sensor circuit is a simple transistor switch with the base of the Darlington pair (formed by T1 and T2) connected to a voltage divider. Variable resistor VR1 and the 10mm encapsulated LDR are used to sense the ambient light. As light falls on the surface of LDR1, its resistance changes. The amount of minimum light needed
to actuate the relay through driver transistor T3 can be varied by adjust-ing VR1. Diode 1N4001 eliminates any back voltage when the relay de-energises. Switch S1 is the mains
power on/off switch and switch S2 is added to bypass the ambient light de-tection function.
Relay RL1 energises only when the ambient light level falls below a threshold value set by VR1, i.e., when its dark. Normally-opened (N/O) con-tacts of the relay ground path to the IR LEDs (LED1 through LED40) to make them glow. The blue LED (LED41) in-dicates the circuit activity. When there is ambient light and you want to use the illuminator, switch S2 on. All the LEDs (LED1 through LED40) glow to fulfil your requirement.
Assemble the circuit on a general-purpose PCB and enclose in a suitable cabinet. The IR LEDs assembly is very important. A set of 40 (58) 5mm infra-red LEDs (IR LED1 through IR LED40) with independent current-limiting resistors (R3 through R10) per string is used. This section is powered by the input DC supply through the relay contacts.
Infrared IllumInaTors.c. dwived
Infrared (IR) illuminators are widely used to improve the image-capturing quality of security cam-eras fitted in dark zones. Just like our eyes, cameras also cant record move-
ments in dark. However, un-like our eyes, most of the lat-est cameras can capture infra-red light.
In an IR I l l u m i n a t o r , many infrared
IR LEDs are grouped together to throw good amount of IR light. Typically, LEDs output at 470 nm (blue region), 525 nm (green region) and 625 nm (red region). IR LEDs produce longer wavelengths, 880 nm and 940 nm being the common ones. Most CCD cameras are a little more sensitive to 880 nm, although when these LEDs are used for security applications, some indi-viduals can detect a very dim red glow from them. The 940nm LED radiations are completely invisible to the eye. Some of these LEDs are clear, while others are tinted with pale shades of
Fig. 1: Circuit for infrared illuminator
Fig. 2: Infrared illuminator
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Mount IR LEDs on the general-pur-pose PCB board such that these make three circles. After soldering, carefully cut the outside of the circuit board in a round shape and fit it in a suitable metal/plastic cabinet. If available, add
a suitable reflector sheet for the IR LED bank. Finally, fit the LDR bank on top of the enclosure with switches, indicator-sensitivity-control pot and power input socket. Fig. 2 shows the infrared illuminator unit.
To make the circuit actuate the re-lay when the intensity of ambient light is less than the preset light level, throw light on LDR1 and then slowly adjust the potentiometer until LED1 lights up and the relay energises.
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Here is a simple but inexpen-sive inverter for using a small soldering iron (25W, 35W, etc) in the absence of mains supply. It uses eight transistors and a few resis-tors and capacitors.
Transistors T1 and T2 (each BC547) form an astable multivibrator that pro-duces 50Hz signal. The complementary outputs from the collectors of transis-tors T1 and T2 are fed to pnp Darling-ton driver stages formed by transistor
InverTer for SoLderIng Iron
pairs T3-T5 and T4-T6 (utilising BC558 and BD140). The outputs from the drivers are fed to transistors T7 and T8 (each 2N3055) connected for push-pull operation. Use suitable heat-sinks for transistors T5 through T8.
A 230V AC primary to 12V-0-12V, 4.5A secondary transformer (X1) is used. The centre-tapped terminal of the secondary of the transformer is connected to the battery (12V, 7Ah), while the other two terminals of the secondary are connected to the collec-tors of power transistors T7 and T8,
respectively.When you power the circuit using
switch S1, transformer X1 produces 230V AC at its primary terminal. This voltage can be used to heat your sol-dering iron.
Assemble the circuit on a general-purpose PCB and house in a suitable
cabinet. Connect the battery and trans-former with suita-ble current-carrying wires. On the front panel of the box, fit power switch S1 and a 3-pin socket for con-necting the soldering iron.
Note that the rat-ings of the battery, transistors T7 and T8, and transformer may vary as these all depend on the load (soldering iron).
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Using this circuit, audio musi-cal notes can be generatedand heard up to a distance of
Fig. 1: Transmitter circuit
Fig. 2: IR audio receiver circuit
IR MUSIC TRANSMITTER ANDRECEIVER
DI10 metres.The circuit can be divided into
two parts: IR music transmitter andreceiver. The IR music transmitterworks off a 9V battery, while the
IR music re-ceiver works offregulated 9V to12V.
Fig. 1 showsthe circuit ofthe IR musictransmitter. Ituses popularmelody genera-tor IC UM66(IC1) that cancont inuous lygenerate musi-cal tones. Theoutput of IC1 isfed to the IR
driver stage (built across the transis-tors T1 and T2) to get the maximumrange.
Here the red LED (LED1) flickersaccording to the musical tones gener-ated by UM66 IC, indicating modula-tion. IR LED2 and LED3 are infraredtransmitting LEDs. For maximumsound transmission these should beoriented towards IR phototransistorL14F1 (T3).
The IR music receiver uses popu-lar op-amp IC A741 and audio-fre-quency amplifier IC LM386 along withphototransistor L14F1 and some dis-crete components (Fig. 2).
The melody generated by IC UM66is transmitted through IR LEDs, re-
ceived by phototransistorT3 and fed to pin 2 ofIC A741 (IC2). Its gaincan be varied usingpotmeter VR1. The outputof IC A741 is fed to ICLM386 (IC3) via capaci-tor C5 and potmeter VR2.The melody producedis heard through thereceivers loudspeaker.Potmeter VR2 is used tocontrol the volume ofloudspeaker LS1 (8-ohm,1W).
Switching off thepower supply stopsmelody generation.
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age through a water-activated tiltswitch only when the probes in thetilt switch make contact with water.When the tilt switch is kept in the hori-zontal position, the inverting input ofIC1 gets a higher voltage than its non-inverting input and the output remainslow.
IC CD4538 (IC2) is used as amonostable with timing elements R5and C1. With the shown values, theoutput of IC2 remains low for a pe-riod of three minutes. CD4538 is a pre-cision monostable multivibrator freefrom false triggering and is more reli-able than the popular timer IC 555. Itsoutput becomes high when power isswitched on and it becomes low whenthe trigger input (pin 5) gets a low-to-high transition pulse.
The unit is fixed inside the laptopcase in horizontal position. In this po-sition, water inside the tilt switch ef-
fectively shorts the contacts, so the out-put of IC1 remains low. The alarm gen-erator remains silent in the standbymode as trigger pin 5 of IC2 is low.
When someone tries to take thelaptop case, the unit takes the verticalposition and the tilt switch breaks theelectrical contact between the probes.Immediately the output of IC1 be-comes high and monostable IC2 is trig-gered. The low output from IC2 trig-gers the pnp transistor (T1) and thebuzzer starts beeping.
Assemble the circuit as compactlyas possible so as to make the unitmatchbox size. Make the tilt switch us-ing a small (2.5cm long and 1cm wide)plastic bottle with two stainless pinsas contacts. Fill two-third of the bottlewith water such that the contacts nevermake electrical path when the tiltswitch is in vertical position. Make thebottle leakproof with adhesive or wax.
Fix the tilt switchinside the enclo-sure of the circuitin horizontal posi-tion. Fit the unit in-side the laptopcase in horizontalposition using ad-hesive.
Use a minia-ture buzzer and amicro switch (S1)to make the gadgetcompact. Keep thelaptop case in hori-zontal position andswitch on the unit.Your laptop is nowprotected.
P rotect your valuable laptopagainst theft using this minia-ture alarm generator. Fixed in-side the laptop case, it will sound aloud alarm when someone tries to takethe laptop. This highly sensitive cir-cuit uses a homemade tilt switch toactivate the alarm through tilting ofthe laptop case.
The circuit uses readily availablecomponents and can be assembled ona small piece of Vero board or a gen-eral-purpose PCB. It is powered by a12V miniature battery used in remotecontrol devices.
IC TLO71 (IC1) is used as a volt-age comparator with a potential di-vider comprising R2 and R3 provid-ing half supply voltage at the non-in-verting input (pin 3) of IC1. The in-verting input receives a higher volt-
D. MOHAN KUMAR
LAPTOP PROTECTOR S.C. DWIVEDI
electronics for you january 2009 97w w w . e f y m a g . c o m
This automatic door opener can be made using readily available components. The electromag-netic relay at the output of this gadget can be used to control the DC/AC door-opener motor/solenoid of an electromechanical door opener as-sembly, with slight intervention in its electrical wiring.
A laser diode (LED1) is used here as the light transmitter. Alternatively, you can use any available laser pointer. The combination of resistor R1 and diode D1 protects the laser diode from over-current flow. By varying muliturn trimpot VR1, you can adjust the sensitivity. (Note that ambient light reflections may slightly degrade the performance of this unit.)
Initially, when the laser beam is falling on photo-transistor T1, it con-
ducts to reverse-bias transistor T3 and the input to the first gate (N1) of IC1 (CD4001) is low. The high output at pin 3 of gate N1 forward biases the LED-driver transistor (T4) and the green standby LED (LED2) lights up continuously. The rest of the circuit remains in standby state.
When someone interrupts the laser beam, photo-transistor T1 stops conducting and transistor T3 becomes forward-biased. This makes the output of gate N1 go low. Thus LED-driver transistor T4 becomes reverse-biased and LED2 stops glowing. At the same time, the low output of gate N1 makes the output of N2 high. Instantly, this high level at pin 4 of gate N2 triggers the monostable multivibrator built around the remaining two gates of IC1 (N3 and N4). Values of resistor R8 and capacitor C1 determine the time period of the monostable.
Laser-guided door opener s.c. dwived
The second monostable built around IC2 (CD4538) is enabled by the high-going pulse at its input pin 12 through the output of gate N4 of the first monostable when the laser beam is interrupted. As a result, relay RL1 energises and the door-opener motor starts operating. LED3 glows to indicate that the door-opener motor is getting the supply. At the same time, piezobuzzer PZ1 sounds an alert. Transistor T5, whose base is connected to Q output (pin 10) of IC2, is used for driving the relay. Transistor T6, whose base is connected to Q output of IC2, is used for driving the intermittent pi-ezobuzzer. On time of relay RL1 can be adjusted by varying trimpot VR2. Resistor R9, variable resistor VR2 and capacitor C3 decide the time period of the second monostable and through it
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on time of RL1.The circuit works off 12V DC
power supply. Assemble it on a gen-eral-purpose PCB. After construction, mount the laser diode and the pho-
totransistor on opposite sides of the doorframe and align them such that the light beam from the laser diode falls on the phototransistor directly. The motor connected to the pole of
relay contacts is the one used in elec-tromechanical door-opener assembly. If you want to use a DC motor, replace mains AC connection with a DC power supply.
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RAJ K. GORKHALI
LED LIGHTING FOR CHRISTMAS S.C. DWIVEDI
U sing light effects for decora-tion on festive occasions is anormal practice. Designers arecoming up with varieties of electroniccircuits to fill the imagination of us-ers.
Here is an easy-to-assemble circuitfor christmas decoration as shown inFig.1. It comprises four transistors,eighteen LEDs, a few resistors and twocapacitors. Transistors T1 and T2 areconfigured as an astable multivibrator,which means one of the two transis-tors is always conducting. Thus thecombination produces clock pulses.
The values of time-constantsformed with R6-C2 and R8-C1 pairshave been selected to produce a low-frequency clock that is visible to hu-man eye. The collectors of transistors
T1 and T2 are connected to driver tran-sistors T3 and T4. These are used tolight up two rows of LEDs connectedin parallel with alternate clock pulses.The frequency at which LED1 throughLED9, and LED10 through LED18, al-ternately light up is about 2 Hz. Youcan easily change this frequency bychanging the values of capacitors C2and C1.
Resistors R2 and R4 are used to setthe current through the LEDs. Red(LED1 through LED9) and green LEDs(LED10 through LED18) are used forsimulating christmas decoration effects.For the brightness variation, you canchange the values of resitors R2 and R4.
Take any general-purpose PCB andcut it into a star shape. Thereafter, as-semble the circuit and solder the colourLEDs onto it such that it looks like achristmas star.
Alternatively, you can design thePCB in circular shape with a festivewhite lacquer finish on component sideand conductor tracks on the other. Placethe control circuit at the centre of thePCB board, with LEDs mounted alongthe outer edge as shown in Fig. 2. Alongthis edge, there are three circular tracks:The middle one is the positive supply,which goes to the anodes of all LEDs.The outer track is connected to the cath-odes of the red LEDs and the innertracks are connected to the cathodes ofthe green LEDs.
To obtain the best effect with thecombination of red and green LEDs,mount them alternately on the PCBboard. Exercise care so that you donot accidentally connect the red andgreen LEDs in parallel. The forwardvoltage drops of red and green LEDsare different.
The circuit works off a 3V-9V bat-tery. It consumes little current, so two/four AA cells or a 9V battery can easilypower the electronic star. You can alsouse a stabilised 3V-9V DC mains adap-tor in place of the battery. Fig.1: LED lighting circuit for Christmas
Fig.2: Christmas Star
C I R C U I T I D E A S
ELECTRONICS FOR YOUJANUARY 2004 119
This LED-based message display isbuilt around readily availble, low-cost components. It is easy to fabri-cate and makes use of 3mm red LEDs. Atotal of 172 LEDs have been arranged todisplay the message HAPPY NEW YEAR2004.
The arrangement of LED1 throughLED11 is used to display H as shown inFig. 1. The anodes of LED1 through LED11are connected to point A and the cath-odes of these LEDs are connected to pointB. Similarly, letter A is built using LED12through LED21. All the anodes of LED12through LED21 are connected to point A,while the cathodes of these LEDs are con-nected to resistor R8 (not shown in thecircuit diagram). Other letters/words canalso be easily arranged to make the re-quired sentence.
The power supply for the message dis-play circuit (Fig. 2) comprises a 0-9V, 2Astep-down transformer (X1), bridge recti-fier comprising diodes D1 through D4,and a filter capacitor (C1). IC 7806 (IC1)
Fig. 1: LED arrangement for word H
Fig. 2: Circuit diagram
of LED-based m
C I R C U I T I D E A S
ELECTRONICS FOR YOU JANUARY 2004120
provides regulated 6V DC to the displaycircuit comprising timer 555 (IC2) anddecade counter CD4017 (IC3). The astablemultivibrator built around IC2 produces1Hz clock at its output pin 3. This outputis connected to clock pin (pin 14) of thedecade counter.
The decade counter can count up to10. The output of IC3 advances by onecount every second (depending on thetime period of astable multivibrator IC2).
When Q1 output of IC3 goes high, tran-sistor T1 conducts and the current flowsthrough LED1 through LED48 via resistorsR7 through R11. Now the word HAPPYbuilt around LED1 through LED48 is dis-played on the LED arrangement board.
Next, when Q2 output of IC3 goes
high, transistor T2 conducts and the cur-rent flows through LED49 through LED87via resistors R12 through R14. Now theword NEW is displayed on the LED ar-rangement board.
Again, when Q3 output goes high, tran-sistor T3 conducts and the current flowsthrough LED88 through LED128 via resis-tors R15 through R18. Now the wordYEAR is displayed on the LED arrange-ment board.
Similarly, when Q4 output goes high,transistor T4 conducts and the currentflows through LED129 through LED172via resistors R19 through R22. Now dig-its 2004 are displayed on the LED ar-rangement board.
During the entire period when Q5,
Q6, Q7, or Q8 output go high, transistorT5 conducts and the current flows throughall the LEDs via diodes D9 through D12and resistors R7 through R22. Now thecomplete message HAPPY NEW YEAR2004 is displayed on the LED arrange-ment for four seconds.
Thus, the display board displaysHAPPY, NEW, YEAR and 2004 oneafter another for one second each. Afterthat, the message HAPPY NEW YEAR2004 is displayed for 4 seconds (becauseQ5 through Q8 are connected to resistorR6 via diodes D5 through D8).
At the next clock input output Q9 goeshigh, and IC3 is reset and the display isturned off for one second. Thereafter thecycle repeats.
8 4 J U N E 2 0 0 7 E L E C T R O N I C S F O R Y O U W W W . E F Y M A G . C O M
D. MOHAN KUMAR
LIGHT FENCE S.C. DWIVEDI
T he basic problem with most ofstandard light sensors is thatthey require precise alignmentof light beam to mute the circuit dur-
ing standby mode. The circuit de-scribed here is so sensitive that it willdetect a moving person at a distanceof few metres in daylight or underelectric lighting without cumbersomealignment of light beam. It requires vir-tually no set up, and may be simplyplaced within the line-of-sight of al-most any light source including ambi-
ent day light or fluorescent electriclight. The beep generated from the cir-cuit will be loud enough to detect theentry of a person in the room or theprotected area being guarded.
The circuit uses a voltage compara-tor and a monostable timer to give thewarning alarm on detecting a movingperson. IC A741 (IC1) is used as avoltage comparator with two poten-tial dividers in its inverting and non-inverting inputs. Resistors R1 and R2provide half-supply voltage of 4.5volts to its inverting input (pin 2).
LDR1 and preset VR1 form anotherpotential divider to provide a variablevoltage input to the non-inverting in-put (pin 3).
If VR1 is properly adjusted for therequired light level, the output of IC1will be high, which drives pnp tran-sistor T1 out of conduction. This is dueto the high potential at the base of T1.The emitter voltage of T1 will be high
in this condition, which inhibitsIC2 from oscillation and LED1from lighting. IC2 is wired as amonostable timer. R6 and C2 pro-vide a preset time delay.
As a person crosses the pro-tected area, his shadow will besensed by LDR1 due to changein the light intensity leveland the voltage at the non-invert-ing input of IC1 will drop mo-mentarily. The output of IC1 sud-denly becomes low, allowing T1to conduct. This triggers themonostable (IC2) and the alarmsounds.
Assemble the circuit on acommon PCB and house in aplastic case. Keep LDR1 inside ablack tube to increase its sensi-tivity. Adjust preset VR1
until LED1 turns off at the particularlight level. Keep LDR1 facingthe entrance of the room or the areato be protected. Sensitivity of the cir-cuit depends on the proper adjust-ment of VR1. If VR1 is correctly ad-justed, the circuit can detect a movingperson from a distance of about threemetres.
electronics for you July 2009 85w w w . e f y m a g . c o m
Liquid LeveL ALArm s.c. dwivedi
Here is a simple circuit for liquid level alarm. It is built around two BC547 transistors (T1 and T2) and two timer 555 ICs (IC1 and IC2). Both IC1 and IC2 are wired in astable multivibrator mode. Timer IC1 produces low frequency, while timer IC2 produces high frequency. As a result, a beeping tone is generated when the liquid tank is full.
Initially, when the tank is empty, transistor T1 does not conduct. Con-sequently, transistor T2 conducts and
pin 4 of IC1 is low. This low voltage disables IC1 and it does not oscillate. The low output of IC1 disables IC2 and it does not oscillate. As a result, no sound is heard from the speaker.
But when the tank gets filled up, transistor T1 conducts. Consequently, transistor T2 is cut off and pin 4 of IC1 becomes high. This high voltage enables IC1 and it oscillates to produce low frequencies at pin 3. This low-fre-quency output enables IC2 and it also oscillates to produce high frequencies. As a result, sound is produced from the speaker. Using preset VR1 you can
control the volume of the sound from the speaker.
The circuit can be powered from a 9V battery or from mains by using a 9V power adaptor.
Assemble the circuit on a general-purpose PCB and enclose in a suit-able cabinet. Install two water-level probes using metal strips such that one touches the bottom of the tank and the other touches the maximum level of the water in the tank. Interconnect the sensor and the circuit using a flexible wire.
9 2 M A Y 2 0 0 7 E L E C T R O N I C S F O R Y O U W W W . E F Y M A G . C O M
D. MOHAN KUMAR
MAT SWITCH S.C. DWIVEDI
This simple circuit produces awarning beep when somebodycrosses a protected area in yourhome or office. The switch, hidden be-low the floor mat, triggers the alarmwhen the person walks over it.
The circuit uses a conductive foam
as the switch. It can be two smallpieces of conductive pads usually usedto pack sensitive ICs as antistatic cover.Alternatively, you can make the switchby coating conducting carbon ink ontwo small pieces of a copper-cladboard.
When the circuit is in standbymode, transistor T1 does not conduct,
since its base isfloating. Whenthe personwalks, the switchis pressed andcurrent flowsthrough R1 andthe switch toprovide positivebias to transistorT1. Transistor T1conducts and itscollector voltagedrops, whichacts as a negativetrigger input forthe monostable
wired around IC NE555 (IC1).IC1 outputs a pulse of fifty-seconds
duration with preset values of R4 andC3. This pulse is applied to the buzzerthrough transistor T2. The buzzersounds a warning beep onunauthorised entry. The pulse dura-tion can be changed to the desiredvalue by changing the values of R4 andC 3 .Resistor R2 in the circuit makes thetrigger pin of IC1 high to prevent falsetriggering.
Assemble the circuit on a general-purpose PCB and enclose in a plasticcase. Use a 9V battery to power thecircuit. Connect the touchpad switchwith the PCB and hide under the matat the entrance. The PCB can bemounted on the nearby wall.
Make the switch carefully usingconducting foam or copper clad coatedwith conducting ink. Place the twopieces with their conducting surfacefacing each other. Solder carefully athin copper electric wire and ensurethat it makes contact when the twoplates touch together on pressing. Pro-vide two 1cm rubber tabs between theplates to avoid touch in the standbymode.
electronics for you February 2009 95w w w . e F y m a g . c o m
Most thefts happen after midnight hours when peo-ple enter the second phase of sleep called paradoxical sleep. Here is an energy-saving circuit that causes the thieves to abort the theft attempt by lighting up the possible sites of intrusion (such as kitchen or backyard of your house) at around 1:00 am. It automatically resets in the morning.
The circuit is fully automatic and uses a CMOS IC CD 4060 to get the desired time delay. Light-dependent resistor LDR1 controls reset pin 12 of IC1 for its automatic action.
During day time, the low resist-ance of LDR1 makes pin 12 of IC1 high, so it doesnt oscillate. After
sunset, the high resistance of LDR1 makes pin 12 of IC1 low and it starts oscillating, which is indicated by the flashing of LED2 connected to pin 7 of IC1. The values of oscillator compo-nents (resistors R1 and R2 and capaci-tor C4) are chosen such that output pin 3 of IC1 goes high after seven hours, i.e., around 1 am. This high output drives triac 1 (BT136) through LED1 and R3.
Bulb L1 connected between the phase line and M2 terminal of triac 1 turns on when the gate of triac 1 gets the trigger voltage from pin 3 of IC1. It remains on until pin 12 of IC1 be-comes high again in the morning.
Capacitors C1 and C3 act as power reserves, so IC1 keeps oscillating even if there is power interruption for a few seconds. Capacitor C2 keeps trigger
pin 12 of IC1 high during day time, so slight changes in light intensity dont affect the circuit. Using preset VR1 you can adjust the sensitivity of LDR1.
Power supply to the circuit is de-rived from a step-down transformer X1 (230V AC primary to 0-9V, 300mA secondary), rectified by a full-wave rectifier comprising diodes D1 through D4 and filtered by capacitor C1.
Assemble the circuit on a general-purpose PCB with adequate spacing between the components. Sleeve the exposed leads of the components. Using switch S1 you can turn on the lamp manually. Enclose the unit in a plastic case and mount at a location
that allows adequate daylight.
Caution. Since the circuit uses 230V AC, many of its points are at AC mains voltage. It could give you lethal shock if you are not careful. So if you dont know much about work-ing with line voltages, do not attempt to con-struct this circuit. EFY will not be responsible for any kind of resulting loss or damage.
D. MOHAN KUMAR
MIDNIGHT secURITy lIGHTs.c. dwived
94 November 2009 electronics for you w w w . e f y m a g . c o m
D. Mohan KuMar
Mini uPS SySteM s.c. dwived
This circuit provides an uninter-rupted power supply (UPS) to operate 12V, 9V and 5V DC-powered instruments at up to 1A current. The backup battery takes up the load without spikes or delay when the mains power gets interrupted. It can also be used as a workbench power supply that provides 12V, 9V and 5V operating voltages. The circuit im-
mediately disconnects the load when the battery voltage reduces to 10.5V to prevent deep discharge of the battery. LED1 indication is provided to show the full charge voltage level of the bat-tery. miniature white LEDs (LED2 and LED3) are used as emergency lamps during power failure at night.
A standard step-down trans-former provides 12V of AC, which is rectified by diodes D1 and D2. Ca-pacitor C1 provides ripple-free DC to charge the battery and to the remain-ing circuit. When the mains power is on, diode D3 gets forward biased to charge the battery. Resistor R1 limits the charging current. Potentiometer VR1 (10k) with transistor T1 acts as the voltage comparator to indicate the voltage level. VR1 is so adjusted that LED1 is in the off mode. When the battery is fully charged, LED1 glows indicating a full voltage level of 12V.
When the mains power fails, diode D3 gets reverse biased and D4 gets forward biased so that the battery can automatically take up the load without any delay. When the battery voltage or input voltage falls below 10.5V, a cut-off circuit is used to prevent deep discharging of the battery. Resistor R3, zener diode ZD1 (10.5V) and transistor T2 form the cut-off circuit. When the volt-age level is above 10.5V, transistor
T2 conducts and its base becomes negative (as set by R3, VR2 and ZD1). But when the voltage reduces below 10.5V, the zener diode stops conduc-tion and the base voltage of transis-tor T2 becomes positive. It goes into the cut-off mode and prevents the current in the output stage. Preset VR2 (22k) adjusts the voltage below 0.6V to make T2 work if the voltage is above 10.5V.
When power from the mains is available, all output voltages12V, 9V and 5Vare ready to run the load. On the other hand, when the mains power is down, output volt-ages can run the load only when the battery is fully charged (as indicated by LED1). For the partially charged battery, only 9V and 5V are available. Also, no output is available when the voltage goes below 10.5V. If battery voltage varies between 10.5V and 13V, output at terminal A may also
vary between 10.5V and 12V, when the UPS system is in battery mode.
Outputs at points B and C provide 9V and 5V, respectively, through regu-lator ICs (IC1 and IC2), while output A provides 12V through the zener diode. The emergency lamp uses two ultra-bright white LEDs (LED2 and LED3) with current limiting resistors R5 and R6. The lamp can be manually
switched on and off by S1.The circuit is assembled on a gen-
eral-purpose PCB. There is adequate space between the components to avoid overlapping. heat sinks for tran-sistor T2 and regulator ICs (7809 and 7805) to dissipate heat are used.
The positive and negative rails should be strong enough to handle high current. Before connecting the circuit to the battery and transformer, connect it to a variable power supply. Provide 12V DC and adjust VR1 till LED1 glows. After setting the high voltage level, reduce the voltage to 10.5V and adjust VR2 till the output trips off. After the settings are com-plete, remove the variable power sup-ply and connect a fully-charged battery to the terminals and see that LED1 is on. After making all the adjustments connect the circuit to the battery and transformer. The battery used in the circuit is a 12V, 4.5Ah UPS battery.
E L E C T R O N I C S F O R Y O U J A N U A R Y 2 0 0 8 1 3 5W W W . E F Y M A G . C O M
D. MOHAN KUMAR
T his handy, pocket-size mobiletransmission detector can sensethe presence of an activatedmobile phone from a distance of one-and-a-half metres. So it can be used toprevent use of mobile phones in ex-amination halls, confidential rooms,etc. It is also useful for detecting theuse of mobile phone for spying andunauthorised video transmission.
The circuit can detect both the in-coming and outgoing calls, SMS andvideo transmission even if the mobilephone is kept in the silent mode. Themoment the bug detects RF transmis-sion signal from an activated mobilephone, it starts sounding a beep alarmand the LED blinks. The alarm contin-ues until the signal transmission ceases.
An ordinary RF detector usingtuned LC circuits is not suitable fordetecting signals in the GHz frequencyband used in mobile phones. Thetransmission frequency of mobilephones ranges from 0.9 to 3 GHz witha wavelength of 3.3 to 10 cm. So a cir-cuit detecting gigahertz signals is re-
quired for a mobile bug.Here the circuit uses a 0.22F disk
capacitor (C3) to capture the RF signalsfrom the mobile phone. The lead lengthof the capacitor is fixed as 18 mm witha spacing of 8 mm between the leads toget the desired frequency. The disk ca-pacitor along with the leads acts as asmall gigahertz loop antenna to collectthe RF signals from the mobile phone.
Op-amp IC CA3130 (IC1) is usedin the circuit as a current-to-voltageconverter with capacitor C3 connectedbetween its inverting and non-invert-ing inputs. It is a CMOS version usinggate-protected p-channel MOSFETtransistors in the input to provide veryhigh input impedance, very low inputcurrent and very high speed of perfor-mance. The output CMOS transistoris capable of swinging the output volt-age to within 10 mV of either supplyvoltage terminal.
Capacitor C3 in conjunction withthe lead inductance acts as a transmis-sion line that intercepts the signalsfrom the mobile phone. This capacitor
creates a field, stores energy and trans-fers the stored energy in the form ofminute current to the inputs of IC1.This will upset the balanced input ofIC1 and convert the current into thecorresponding output voltage.
Capacitor C4 along with high-valueresistor R1 keeps the non-inverting in-put stable for easy swing of the out-put to high state. Resistor R2 providesthe discharge path for capacitor C4.Feedback resistor R3 makes the invert-ing input high when the output be-comes high. Capacitor C5 (47pF) isconnected across strobe (pin 8) and
null inputs (pin 1) of IC1 for phasecompensation and gain control tooptimise the frequency response.
When the mobile phone signal isdetected by C3, the output of IC1 be-comes high and low alternately ac-cording to the frequency of the signalas indicated by LED1. This triggersmonostable timer IC2 through capaci-tor C7. Capacitor C6 maintains thebase bias of transistor T1 for fastswitching action. The low-value tim-ing components R6 and C9 producevery short time delay to avoid audionuisance.
Assemble the circuit on a general-purpose PCB as compact as possibleand enclose in a small box like junkmobile case. As mentioned earlier, ca-pacitor C3 should have a lead lengthof 18 mm with lead spacing of 8 mm.Carefully solder the capacitor in stand-ing position with equal spacing of theleads. The response can be optimisedby trimming the lead length of C3 forthe desired frequency. You may use ashort telescopic type antenna.
Use the miniature 12V battery of aremote control and a small buzzer tomake the gadget pocket-size. The unitwill give the warning indication ifsomeone uses mobile phone within aradius of 1.5 metres.
118 OctO b er 2010 electronics for you w w w . e f y m a g . c O m
Mobile Car STereo Player
Using a mobile phone while driving is dangerous. It is also against the law. However, you can use your mobile phone as a
powerful music player with the help of a stereo power amplifier. This does away with the need of a sophisticated in-dash car music system.
Most mobile phones have a music player that offers a number of features
including pre-s e t / m a n u a l sound equal-i sers . They have standard 3.5mm stereo sockets that allow music to be played through stand-a r d s t e r e o headphones/sound ampli-fiers. Nokia 2700 classic is an example.
A car au-dio amplifier with 3.5mm socket can be designed and simply connected to the mobile phone output via a shield-ed cable with suitable connectors/jacks (readymade 3.5mm male-to- male connector cable is a good alter-native).
Fig. 1 shows the circuit of car ste-reo player. It is built around popular single-chip audio power amplifier TDA1554Q (IC1). The TDA1554Q is an integrated class-B power amplifier in a 17-lead single-in-line (SIL) plastic power package.
IC TDA1554Q contains four 11W identical amplifiers with differential input stages (two inverting and two
Fig. 1: Circuit of mobile car stereo player
Fig. 3: Proposed enclosure
Fig. 2: (a) 3.5mm stereo socket and (b) 3.5mm stereo jack
non-inverting) and can be used for single-ended or bridge applications. The gain of each amplifier is fixed at 20 dB. Here it is configured as two 22W stereo bridge amplifiers.
The amplifier is powered from the 12V car battery through RCA socket J2. Diode D1 protects against wrong-polarity connection. LED1 indicates the power status.
Connect stereo sound signal from the 3.5mm headset socket of the mo-bile phone to audio input socket J1. When you play the music from your mobile, IC1 amplifies the input. The output of IC1 is fed to speakers LS1 and LS2 fitted at a suitable place in your car. Electrolytic capacitor C5 connected between pin 4 of IC1 and GND improves the supply-voltage ripple rejection. Components R2 and C4 connected at mute/standby pin (pin 14) of IC1 eliminate the switch on/off plop.
The circuit is quite compact. A good-quality heat-sink assembly is crucial for IC1. Fig. 2 shows the stereo socket and stereo jack.
Assemble the circuit on a general-purpose PCB and enclose in a suitable cabinet. Small dimensions of the power amplifier make it suitable for being en-closed in a plastic (ABS) case with vent holes. Signal input socket, speaker out-put terminals, on/off switch, indicator, fuse holder and power supply socket are best located on the front panel of the enclosure as shown in Fig. 3.
9 2 A U G U S T 2 0 0 7 E L E C T R O N I C S F O R Y O U W W W . E F Y M A G . C O M
D. MOHAN KUMAR
MOBILE SHIELD MALAYAPPASAM
P rotect your mobile phone fromunauthorised use or theft usingthis simple circuit. It can gener-ate a loud chirping sound when some-body attempts to take away the mo-bile handset. The added feature is thatthe circuit also works as a mobilecharger.
The circuit is powered by astep-down transformer X1 with recti-fier diodes D1 and D2 and filter ca-
pacitor C1. Regulator IC 7812 (IC1)along with noise filter capacitors C2and C3 provides regulated power sup-ply.
The circuit utilises two NE555timer ICs: One as a simple astablemultivibrator (IC2) and the second asa monostable (IC3). The astablemultivibrator has timing resistors R1and R2 but no timing capacitor as itworks with stray capacitance. Its pins6 and 2 are directly connected to a pro-tecting shield made up of 10cm10cmcopper-clad board.
The inherent stray capacitance ofthe circuit is sufficient to given an out-put frequency of about 25 kHz withR1 and R2. This arrangement provides
greater sensitivity and enables the cir-cuit with hand capacitance effect. Out-put pulses from the oscillator are di-rectly given to trigger pin 2 of themonostable. The monostable uses alow-value capacitor C6, resistors R3and preset VR1 for timing.
The output frequency of themonostable is adjusted using presetVR1 such that it is slightly less thanthat of the astable. This makes thecircuit standby, when there is nohand capacitance present. So in the
standby mode, the astables outputwill be low. This makes the triggerinput of monostable low and outputhigh.
The warning LED1 and buzzer areconnected such that they become ac-tive only when the output of themonostable sinks current. In thestandby state, the LED1 remains offand the buzzer is silent. As somebodytries to take the mobile phone fromthe protecting shield, his hand comesnear the shield or makes contact withthe shield, which introduces hand ca-pacitance in the circuit. As a result, theastables frequency changes, whichmakes the trigger pin of themonostable low and its output oscil-
lates. This produces chirping soundfrom the buzzer and also makes theLED1 blink.
The circuit can also be used as amobile charger. It provides output of6V at 180 mA through regulator IC7806 (IC4) and resistor R5 for charg-ing the mobile phone. Diode D3 pro-tects the output from polarity rever-sal.
The circuit can be wired on acommon PCB. Enclose it in a suitablecase with provision for charger out-
put leads. Make the protective shieldusing 10cm10cm copper-clad boardor aluminium sheet. Connect it tothe circuit using a 15cm plastic wire.Leads of all capacitors should beshort.
Adjust VR1 slowly using a plasticscrewdriver until the buzzer stopssounding. Bring the hand close to theshield and adjust VR1 until the buzzersounds. With trial-and-error proce-dure, set it for the maximum sensitiv-ity such that as soon the hand comesnear the shield, the buzzer startschirpring and the LED blinks. Insteadof using the copper cladding for shield,a metallic mobile phone holder can beused as the shield.
1 1 6 O C T O B E R 2 0 0 7 E L E C T R O N I C S F O R Y O U W W W . E F Y M A G . C O M
T his simple-to-build alarm canbe fitted in bikes to protectthem from being stolen. Thetiny circuit can be hidden anywhere,without any complicated wiring. Vir-tually, it suits all bikes as long as theyhave a battery. It doesnt drain out thebattery though as the standby currentis zero.
The hidden switch S1 can be asmall push-to-on switch, or a reedswitch with magnet, or any other simi-lar simple arrangement. The circuitis designed around a couple of low-voltage MOSFETs configured asmonostable timers. Motorbike key S2is an ignition switch, while switch S3is a tilt switch.
Motorbike key S2 provides powersupply to the gate of MOSFET T2, when
turned on. When you turn ignition offusing key S2, you have approximately15 seconds to get off the bike; this func-tion is performed by resistor R6 to dis-charge capacitor C3. Thereafter, if any-one attempts to get on the bike or moveit, the alarm sounds for approximately15 seconds and also disconnects theignition circuit.
During parking, hidden switch S1is normally open and does not allowtriggering of MOSFET T1. But whensomeone starts the motorbike throughignition switch S2, MOSFET T2 trig-gers through diode D1 andresistor R5. Relay RL1 (12V,2C/O) energises to activatethe alarm (built aroundIC1) as well as to discon-nect the ignition coil fromthe circuit. Disconnection ofthe ignition coil prevents
MOTORBIKE ALARM S.C. DWIVEDI
generation of spark from the spark plug.Usually, there is a wire running fromthe alternator to the ignition coil, whichhas to be routed through one of the N/C1 contacts of relay RL1 as shown inFig. 1. Fig. 2 shows the pin configura-tions of SCR BT169, MOSFET BS170and transistor BC548.
Also, on disconnection of the coil,sound generator IC UM3561 (IC1) getspower supply through N/O2 contactof relay RL1. This drives the darlingtonpair built around T3 and T4 to pro-duce the siren sound through loud-speaker LS1.
To start the vehicle, both hiddenswitch S1 and ignition key S2 shouldbe switched on. Otherwise, the alarmwill start sounding. Switching on S1
triggers SCR1, which, inturn, triggers MOSFET T1.MOSFET T1 is configuredto disable MOSFET T2from functioning. As a re-sult, MOSFET T2 does nottrigger and relay RL1 re-mains de-energised, alarm
Fig. 1: Cheap motorbike alarm
Fig. 2: Pin configurations ofBT169, BS170 and BC548
E L E C T R O N I C S F O R Y O U O C T O B E R 2 0 0 7 1 1 7W W W . E F Y M A G . C O M
deactivated and ignition coil connectedto the circuit. Connection to the igni-tion coil helps in generation of sparkfrom the spark plug. Keeping hiddenswitch S1 accessible only to the ownerprevents the bike from pillaging.
Tilt switch S3 prevents attempt tomove the vehicle without starting it.Glass- and metal-bodied versions ofthe switch offer bounce-free switchingand quick break action even whentilted slowly. Unless otherwise stated,
the angle by which the switch must betilted to ensure the contact operation(operating angle), must be approxi-mately 1.5 to 2 times the stated differ-ential angle. The differential angle isthe measure of the just closed posi-tion to the just open position.
The tilt switch has characteristicslike contacts make and break with vi-bration, return to the open state at rest,non-position sensitivity, inert gas andhermetic sealing for protection of con-
tacts and tin-plated steel housing. Ifyou find difficulty in getting the tiltswitch, you may replace it with a reedswitch (N/O) and a piece of magnet.The magnet and the reed switchshould be mounted such that the con-tacts of the switch close when the bikestand is lifted up from rest.
EFY note. Make sure that whiledriving, the two internal contacts ofthe Tilt switch dont touch eachother.
118 August 2009 electronics for you w w w . e f y m A g . c o m
Multitone Siren s.c. dwived
This multitone siren is useful for burglar alarms, reverse horns, etc. It produces five different audio tones and is much more ear-catching than a single-tone siren.
The circuit is built around popular CMOS oscillator-cum-divider IC 4060
and small audio amplifier LM386. IC 4060 is used as the multitone genera-tor. A 100H inductor is used at the input of IC 4060. So it oscillates within the range of about 5MHz RF. IC 4060 itself divides RF signals into AF and ultrasonic ranges. Audio signals of different frequencies are available at pins 1, 2, 3, 13 and 15 of IC 4060 (IC1).
These multifrequency signals are mixed and fed to the audio amplifier built around IC LM386.
The output of IC2 is fed to the speaker through capacitor C9. If you want louder sound, use power ampli-fier TBA810 or TDA1010.
Only five out-puts of IC1 are used here as the other five outputs (pins 4 through 7 and 14) produce ultrasonic signals, which are not audible.
Assemble the circuit on a gen-eral-purpose PCB and enclose in a suitable cabinet. Regulated 6V-12V (or a battery) can be used to power the circuit.
96 october 2008 electronics for you w w w . e f y m a g . c o m
Ashok k. Doctor
MusculAr stiMulAtor s.c. dwived
Here is a circuit that stimulates nerves of that part of your body where electrodes are aid in removing cellulitis. The system comprises two units: muscular stimulator and timer. Fig. 1 shows the circuit of the
muscular stimulator. IC 7555 is wired as an astable multivibrator to generate about 80Hz pulses. The output of IC1 is fed to tran-sistor T1, whose emitter is further connected to the base of transistor T2 through R3 and VR1. The col-lector of transistor T2 is connected to one end of the secondary wind-ing of transformer X1. The other end of the secondary winding of the transformer is connected to ground.
When IC1 oscillates, trans-former X1 is driven by the pulse frequencies generated to produce high voltage at its primary termi-nals. Separate electrodes are con-nected to each end of the primary winding of transformer X1. Diode 1N4007 (D1) protects transistor T2
against high-voltage pulses generated by the transformer.
Using potmeter VR1 you can con-trol the intensity of current sensing at the electrodes. The brightness level of LED1 indicates the amplitude of the pulses. If you want to increase the in-tensity level, replace the 1.8-kilo-ohm resistor with 5.6 kilo-ohms or higher value up to 10 kilo-ohms.
X1 is a small mains transformer with 220V primary to 12V, 100/150mA secondary. It must be reverse connect-ed, i.e., connect the secondary winding to the collector of T2 and ground, and primary winding to the output elec-trodes. The output voltage is about 60V but the output current is so small that there is no threat of electric shock.
Electrodes are made of small, thin-guage metallic plates measuring about 2.52.5 cm2 in size. Use flexible wires to solder electrodes and connect to the Fig. 2: Timer circuit
Fig. 1: Muscular stimulator circuit
attached. It is useful to relieve head-ache and muscular pain and revive frozen muscles that impair movement. Though it provides muscles stimula-tion and invigoration, its mainly an
electronics for you october 2008 97w w w . e f y m a g . c o m
output of the device. Before attaching metal electrodes to the body, wipe them with a damp cloth. After attach-ing the electrodes to the body (with the help of elastic bands on velcro straps), flip switch S1 to activate the circuit and rotate the knob of intensity-control preset VR1 very slowly until you feel a slight tingling sensation.
Fig. 2 shows the timer circuit. It uses IC NE555 wired in monostable mode. Initially, when you press switch
S2, the monostable triggers and its out-put goes high for 10 minutes. Thereaf-ter, its output goes low to give a beep sound from the piezobuzzer and lights up the red LED (LED2) indicating that stimulation time is over.
Assemble the timer with a separate switch and a 9V DC battery in the same cabinet as the stimulator. Tape the elec-trodes to the skin at opposite ends of the chosen muscle and rotate VR1 knob slowly until you sense light itching
when the muscular stimulation circuit is powered on. At the same time, flip switch S2 to start the timer for counting the time. At the end of the timing cycle, the piezobuzzer beeps. Each session should last about 10 minutes.
Caution: Heart patients and pregnant women should not use this device. Also, do not attach elec-trodes to burns, cuts, wounds or any injury. Consult your physician before using this circuit.
electronics for you November 2008 85w w w . e f y m a g . c o m
D. Mohan KuMar
night alert s.c. dwived
Idea of this circuit came to me at midnight when my pet dog started barking continuously on sensing a moving shadow, perhaps that of an intruder. Dogs have a night adaptation capability to maximise the sensitivity of vision in low light. They are well adapted to see moving objects rather
than stationary ones in darkness. This circuit turns a lamp on for
a short duration when the dog barks, giving an impression that the occu-pants have been alerted.
The condenser microphone fitted in the dogs cage senses barking sound and generates AC signals, which pass through DC blocking capacitor C1 to the base of transistor BC549 (T1).
Transistor T1 along with transistor T2 amplifies the sound signals and provides current pulses from the col-lector of T2.
The input trigger pulse is applied to the collector of transistor T3 and coupled by capacitor C3 to the base of transistor T4 causing T4 to cut off. The
collector voltage of transistor T4 for-ward biases transistor T3 via resistor R8. Transistor T1 conducts and capaci-tor C3 discharges to keep transistor T4 cut-off. Transistor T4 remains cut-off until capacitor C3 charges enough to enable it to conduct.
When transistor T4 conducts, its col-lector voltage goes low to drive transis-tor T3 into cut-off state. Resistor R9 and
capacitor C3 are timing components. When fully charged, capacitor C3 takes about two minutes to discharge.
So when sound is produced in front of the condenser mic, TRiAC1 (BT136) fires and the bulb (B1) glows for about two minutes.
Assemble the circuit on a general-purpose PCB and enclose in a plastic cabinet. Power to the circuit can be derived from a 12V, 500mA step-down transformer with rectifier and smooth-ing capacitor. Solder the triac ensuring
sufficient spacing between the pins to avoid short circuit. Fix the unit in the dogs cage, with the lamp inside or outside as de-sired. Connect the microphone to the circuit us-ing a short length of shielded wire. Enclose the mi-crophone in a tube to increase
its sensitivity.Caution. Since the circuit uses
230V AC, many of its points are at AC mains voltage. it could give you le-thal shock if you are not careful. So if you dont know much about working with line voltages, do not attempt to construct this circuit. EFY will not be responsible for any kind of resulting loss or damage.
104 February 2010 electronics for you w w w . e F y m a g . c o m
Most water-level indicators for water tanks are based upon the number of LEDs that glow to indicate the correspond-ing level of water in the container. Here we present a digital version of the water-level indicator. It uses a 7-seg-
ment display to show the water level in numeric form from 0 to 9.
The circuit works off 5V regulated power supply. It is built around prior-ity encoder IC 74HC147 (IC1), BCD-to-7-segment decoder IC CD4511 (IC2), 7-segment display LTS543 (DIS1) and a few discrete components. Due to high input impedance, IC1 senses water in the container from its nine input termi-nals. The inputs are connected to +5V via 560-kilo-ohm resistors. The ground
nUMeRiC WaTeR-leVel inDiCaTOR
terminal of the sensor must be kept at the bottom of the container (tank). IC 74HC147 has nine active-low inputs and converts the active input into ac-tive-low BCD output. The input L-9 has the highest priority.
The outputs of IC1 (A, B, C and D) are fed to IC2 via transistors T1 through T4. This logic inverter is used
to convert the active-low output of IC1 into active-high for IC2. The BCD code received by IC2 is shown on 7-seg-ment display LTS543. Resistors R18 through R24 limit the current through the display.
When the tank is empty, all the inputs of IC1 remain high. As a result, its output also remains high, making all the inputs of IC2 low. Display LTS543 at this stage shows 0, which means the tank is empty. Similarly,
when the water level reaches L-1 posi-tion, the display shows 1, and when the water level reaches L-8 position, the display shows 8. Finally, when
the tank is full, all the inputs of IC1 become low and its output goes low to make all the inputs of IC2 high. Display LTS543 now shows 9, which means the tank is full.
Assemble the circuit on a gen-eral-purpose PCB and enclose in a box. Mount 7-segment LTS543 on the front panel of the box. For sensors L-1 though L-9 and ground, use corrosion-free conductive-metal (stainless-steel) strips.
90 august 2008 electronics for you w w w . e f y m a g . c o m
limiter and capacitors C1 and C4 act as buffers.
Working of the cir-cuit is simple. Audio signals from the PC au-dio socket/headphone socket are fed to the am-
plifier circuit through components R2 and C2 (left channel), and R3 and C3
(right channel). Pot-meter VR1 works as the volume control-ler for left (L) chan-nel and potmeter VR2 works for right (R) channel. Pin 7 of TDA2822M receives t h e l e f t - c h a n n e l sound signals and pin 6 receives the right-channel signals through VR1 and VR2, respectively. Amplified signals for driving the left and right loudspeak-ers are available at pins 1 and 3 of IC1, respectively. Com-ponents R5 and C8, and R6 and C10 form the traditional zobel network.
Assemble the cir-cuit on a medium-size, general-purpose PCB and enclose in a suitable cabinet. It is advisable to use a socket for IC TDA2822M. The external connections should be made using suitably screened wires for better result.
PC MulTiMedia SPeaKerS s.c. dwived
This circuit of multimedia speak-ers for PCs has single-chip-based design, low-voltage pow-er supply, compatibility with USB power, easy heat-sinking, low cost, high flexibility and wide temperature tolerance.
At the heart of the circuit is IC TDA2822M. This IC is, in fact, mono-
lithic type in 8-lead mini DIP pack-age. It is intended for use as a dual audio power amplifier in battery-pow-ered sound players. Specifications of TDA2822M are low quiescent current, low crossover distortion, supply volt-
age down to 1.8 volts and minimum output power of around 450 mW/channel with 4-ohm loudspeaker at 5V DC supply input.
An ideal power amplifier can be simply defined as a circuit that can deliver audio power into external loads without generating significant signal distortion and without consuming excessive quiescent current.
This circuit is powered by 5V DC
supply available from the USB port of the PC. When power switch S1 is flipped to on position, 5V power supply is extended to the circuit and power-indicator red LED1 lights up instantly. Resistor R1 is a current surge
Fig. 1: Circuit for PC multimedia speaker
Fig. 2: Pin configuration of TDA2822M
84 June 2009 electronics for you w w w . e f y m a g . c o m
PC POWer ManaGer s.c. dwived
fier comprising diodes D1 through D4, smoothed by capacitors C1 and C2, and regulated by IC LM7812 (IC1). The regulated 12V DC is used to energise relay RL1. LED1 works as a power- active indicator.
To set up the circuit, first connect the input socket (SOC1) of the circuit to a proper AC mains wall outlet us-ing a three-core power cable. Now connect one end of a standard USB cable to the B-type USB input socket and the other end of the cable to any vacant USB port (A-type) of the PC. Fi-nally, plug one standard four-way switchboard (extension cord) into the supply output socket (SOC2) of the circuit and take power from this switchboard to acti-vate all loads like moni-tor, scanner, printer and even your PC.
To activate the PC manager circuit, proceed as follows: Press start switch S1 and hold it in this position for a few minutes. When power-active indicator LED1 lights up, relay RL1 energises and the 230V mains power supply from SOC1 is fed to output socket SOC2 through the contacts of relay RL1.
Very often we forget to switch off the connected peripher-als like monitor, scanner and printer while switching off our PC. This leads to needless energy con-sumption and possible shortening of the life of the peripheral. PCs with an ATX switch-mode power supply (SMPS) unit are not provided with a mains switch outlet. It is therefore not possible to achieve automatic switch-ing (on/off) of peripheral units with the computer power switch.
Here is a simple circuit that turns the connected peripherals on/off along with your PC. It consists of a regulated power supply, a simple USB interface and two electromagnetic relays used as power switches.
The power supply for the circuit is derived from the AC mains via trans-former X1. The 15V AC available at the secondary winding of transformer X1 is first rectified by a bridge recti- Fig. 2: Wiring diagram for PC power manager
Fig. 1: Circuit of PC power manager
electronics for you June 2009 85w w w . e f y m a g . c o m
PC manager is ready to use.When you switch off your PC, relay
RL2 de-energises. As a result, electric power from the switchboard (to which all peripherals are connected) is cut off. Switch S2 works here as an emergency bypass switch.
Assemble the circuit on a general-purpose PCB and enclose in a suitable
Now start your computer as usual, by pressing the power button on the front panel. When the PC runs, there will be 5V DC at the USB interface socket. As a result, relay RL2 energises via diode D6. The contacts of relay RL2 close switch S1 permanently, and LED2 glows continuously.
Release start switch S1. Now your
cabinet. Connect SOC1, SOC2 and USB socket along with switches S1 and S2 and LEDs (LED1 and LED2) on the front panel of the cabinet. Refer Fig. 2 for connections.
EFY note. Take care during fab-rication and testing, as the circuit is at mains potential and may give you lethal shock.
9 2 S E P T E M B E R 2 0 0 7 E L E C T R O N I C S F O R Y O U W W W . E F Y M A G . C O M
RAJ K. GORKHALI
PC TEMPERATURE ALARM S.C. DWIVEDI
I f your PC overheats, it coulddamage its expensive components.Heres a circuit that warns you ofyour PC getting heated.
Todays computers contain mostof the circuitry on just a few chipsand reduced power consumption isa byproduct of this LSI and VSLIapproach. Some PCs still havepower supplies that are capable ofsupplying around 200W, but fewPCs actually consume power to thisextent.
On the other hand, apart fromsome portable and small desktop com-puters that use the latest micro-powercomponents, most PCs still consumesignificant amount of power and gen-erate certain amount of heat.
The temperature inside the aver-age PC starts to rise well above theambient temperature soon after it isswitched on. Some of the larger inte-grated circuits become quite hot andif the temperature inside the PC rises
too high, these devices may not beable to dissipate heat fast enough.This, in turn, could lead to failure ofdevices and eventually of the PC.
Various means to combat overheat-ing are available, ranging from simpletemperature alarms to devices liketemperature-activated fans to keep themicroprocessor cool.
Here is a temperature alarm thatactivates an audio beeper if the tem-perature inside the PC exceeds a pre-set threshold. This temperature is user-adjustable and can be anywhere be-tween 0C and 100C.
The unit is in the form of asmall PC expansion card, which yousimply need to plug into any avail-able slot of the host PC. It is poweredfrom the PC and consumes only about12 mA.
The sensor (LM35) used here pro-vides a substantial amount of on-chipsignal conditioning, including ampli-fication, level shifting and phase in-version. As a result, it provides an out-put of 10 mV per degree centigrade
rise in temperature. It caters to a tem-perature measurement range of 0C to100C, which corresponds to 0V to 1Vof voltage.
The voltage-detector stage com-pares the output voltage of the tem-perature sensor with the preset refer-ence voltage. The output of the com-parator goes high if the output po-tential from the sensor exceeds thereference voltage. When this happens,the voltage comparator enables a low-frequency oscillator, which, in turn,activates the audio oscillator. The out-put of the audio oscillator is connectedto a loudspeaker (LS1), which soundsa simple beep-beep alarm. The ref-erence voltage determines the tem-perature at which the alarm is acti-vated.
Fig. 1 shows the circuit of the PCtemperature alarm and Fig. 2 showsthe pin configuration of sensor LM35.IC LM35 (IC1) is an easy-to-usetemperature sensor. It is basically athree-terminal device (two supplyleads plus the output) that operates
Fig. 1: Circuit for PC temperature alarm
E L E C T R O N I C S F O R Y O U S E P T E M B E R 2 0 0 7 9 3W W W . E F Y M A G . C O M
over a wide supply range of 4 to 20V.It consumes only 56 A at 5V andgenerates insignificant heat.
IC2 is an operational amplifier usedhere as a voltage comparator. VR1 pro-vides a reference voltage that can beset anywhere from 0V to approxi-mately 1V, which matches the outputvoltage range of IC1. This referencevoltage is applied to the inverting in-put of IC2 and the output of IC1 iscoupled to the non-inverting input.Consequently, the output of IC2 is lowif the output of IC1 is below the refer-ence voltage, or high if the output ofIC1 exceeds the reference voltage.
The low-frequency oscillator IC3 isa standard 555 astable multivibratorcircuit. It is gated via the reset inputat pin 4, which holds output pin 3 lowwhen IC3 is gated off (when the out-put of IC2 is low). This prevents IC4from oscillating. IC4 is another 555
Fig. 2: Pindetails of LM35
astable multivibratorcircuit, gated via itsreset input. It has anoperating frequencyof approximately 2.5kHz.
When IC3 is acti-vated, its output pro-vides a square waveof 1 Hz. This is used
to trigger IC4, which gives an audiooutput of 2.5 kHz in bursts. It is con-nected to loudspeaker LS1 to generatealarm.
The alarm circuit can be fitted intoany spare expansion slot of the PC, butbe careful to fit it the right way round.Before setting VR1 to a suitable thresh-old temperature, decide what that tem-perature should be. The technical speci-fication in your computers manualmight be of help here.
If we assume that the room tem-
perature will not normally exceed25oC, the temperature of the interiorof the computer would be up to 35oC.Unless you have good reason to use adifferent threshold temperature, VR1should be set for a wiper potential of350 mV.
Trial-and-error method can beused in the absence of test equip-ment to enable VR1, but it would bea bit time-consuming. There is aslight complication in that thecomputers outer casing must be atleast partially removed to provideaccess to VR1. Once VR1 has beenadjusted, the outer casing must be putback into place so that the interior ofthe computer can warm up in thenormal way. You must therefore al-low time for the temperature insidethe computer to rise back to its nor-mal operating level each time VR1 isreadjusted.
w w w . e f y m a g . c o m88 june 2008 electronics for you
Poor MAns HEAring Aid s.c. dwived
This miniature stereo preampli-fier-cum-headphone amplifier circuit works off a 3V battery (lithium non-rechargeable coin cell). Although its performance is not comparable to that of commercially available sophisticated hearing aids, still it can serve the purpose well for persons with a low degree of hearing impairment. Its maximum power output at 1 kHz is around 8 mW, which is adequate for driving the headphones.
The circuit, as shown in Fig. 1, is wired around Sanyos MSI (me-dium-scale-integrated) surface-mount 10-pin DIL IC LA4537M, which measures just 86.41.5 mm3. A functional block diagram of LA4537M IC is shown in Fig. 2. Since the MSIs pin-to-pin (centre-to-centre) distance is only 1 mm, the circuit has to be assembled on a properly designed PCB using soldering iron with a pointed bit. Two ICs (LA4537M) have been cascaded to increase the overall sensitivity and thereby the reception range. You can adjust the volume of the stereo channels indi-
house it in a thin metallic case, which can then be mounted in the middle of a metallic/plastic headband (gener-ally used by telephone operators), while the two microphones with their associated earpieces are to be extended using screened wires so that these (microphone-earpiece sets) can be kept closest to the respective earlobes.
Caution. Ensure that shielded microphone wires do not touch ( shor t ) the sh ie lded earpiece
w i r e s , a s these are con-nected to dif-ferent p ins (reference in-put pin 5 and ground pins 3 and 8, respec-tively) of ICs L A 4 5 3 7 M . You may use an insula t -i n g s l e e v e over each of the shielded wires.
Fig. 1: Circuit for the hearing aid
Fig. 2: Functional diagram of iC la4537m
vidually, as per your requirement, using presets VR1 and VR2, respec-tively.
With 3V supply voltage, you can afford to use 1/8-watt resistors, while the electrolytic capacitors voltage rating can be as low as 5V. This will allow the assembled circuit to occupy very little space. Apart from the usual battery on/off switch S1, muting on/off switch S2 has also been provided. Both S1 and S2 could be PCB-mount slide switches.
After assembling the main circuit,
w w w . e f y m a g . c o m92 june 2008 electronics for you
PorTable lamP FlasHer s.c. dwived
Here is a portable, high-power incandescent electric lamp flasher. It is basically a dual flasher (alternating blinker) that can handle two separate 230V AC loads (bulbs L1 and L2).
The circuit is fully transistorised and battery-powered. The free-run-ning oscillator circuit is realised using two low-power, low-noise transistors
T1 and T2. One of the two transistors is always conducting, while the other is blocking. Due to regular charging and discharging of capacitors C1 and C2, the two transistors alternate be-tween conduction and non-conduction states.
The collector of transistor T1 is con-nected to the base of driver transistor T4 through current-limiting resistor R5. Similarly, the collector of transistor T2 is connected to the base of driver
transistor T3 through limiting resistor R6. These transistors are used to trigger Triac1 and Triac2 (each BT136) through optotriacs IC1 and IC2, re-spectively, and switch on the power supply to external loads L1 and L2. IC1 and IC2 operate alternatively at a low frequency determined by the values of
capacitors C1 and C2. The oscillator circuit built around
transistors T1 and T2 generates low fre-quencies. When transistor T3 conducts, IC1 is enabled to fire Triac1 and bulb L1 glows. Similarly, when transistor T4 conducts, IC2 is enabled to fire Triac2 and bulb L2 glows.
Connect the power supply line (L) of mains to bulbs L1 and L2, and neutral (N) to T1 terminals of Triac1 and Triac2. You can also con-nect neutral (N) line of the external 230V mains supply to both loads (bulbs L1 and L2) as a common line and then route supply line (L) to respective loads (bulbs L1 and L2).
The circuit works off only 3 volts. Since current consumption is fairly low, two AA-type cells are sufficient to power the cir-cuit. Assemble the circuit
on a general-purpose PCB and enclose in a suitable plastic cabinet with integrated AA-size pen-light cell holder. Drill holes for mounting the on/off switch and power switching terminals. Also connect two bulb holders for bulbs L1 and L2. Refer Fig. 2 for pin configurations.
EFY note. While assembling, test-ing or repairing, take care to avoid the lethal electric shock.
Fig. 2: Pin configurations of MOC3021, BT136 and BC550/547
Fig. 1: Circuit for portable lamp flasher
ELECTRONICS PROJECTS Vol. 22
WITH DIGITAL CONTROL
This circuit is similar to the pre-ceding circuit of the attenuator.Gain of up to 100 can be achieved
in this configuration, which is useful forsignal conditioning of low output of trans-ducers in millivolt range.
The gain selection resistors R3 to R6can be selected by the user andcan be anywhere from 1 kilo-ohm to 1meg-ohm. Trimpots can be used for ob-taining any value of gain required by theuser. The resistor values shown in thecircuit are for decade gains suitable foran autoranging DPM.
Resistor R1 and capacitor C1 reduceripple in the input and also snub tran-sients. Zeners Z1 and Z2 limit the inputto 4.7V, while the input current is lim-ited by resistor R1. Capacitors C2 andC3 are the power supply decoupling ca-pacitors.
Op-amp IC1 is used to increase theinput impedance so that very low inputsare not loaded on measurement. The usercan terminate the inputs with resistance
of his choice (such as 10 meg-ohm or 1meg-ohm) to avoid floating of the inputswhen no measurement is being made.
IC5 is used as an inverting buffer torestore polarity of the input while IC4 isused as buffer at the output of CD4052,because loading it by resistance of valueless than 1 meg-ohm will cause an error.An alternative is to make R9=R10=1 meg-ohm and do away with IC4, though thismay not be an ideal method.
Gains greater than 100 may not bepractical because even at gain value of100 itself, a 100V offset will work out tobe around 10 mV at the output (100V x100). This can be trimmed using the offsetnull option in the OP07, connecting a
trimpot between pins 1 and 8, and con-necting wiper to +5V supply rails. Forbetter performance, use ICL7650 (not pin-
compatible) in place of OP07 and use 7.5Vinstead of 5V supply.
Eight steps for gain or attenuationcan be added by using two CD4051 andpin 6 inhibit on CD4051/52. More stepscan be added by cascading many CD4051,or CD4052, or CD4053 ICs, as pin 6 workslike a chip select.
Some extended applications of this cir-cuit are given below.
1. Error correction in transducer am-plifiers by correcting gain.
2. Autoranging in DMM.3. Sensor selection or input type se-
lection in process control.4. Digitally preset power supplies or
electronic loads.5. Programmable precision mV or mA
sources.6. PC or microcontroller or micropro-
cessor based instruments.7. Data loggers and scanners.
Truth Table (Control Input vs Gain)X,Y (On-switch (2) (1) GainPair) B A (Av.)X0,Y0 0 0 1/10X1,Y1 0 1 1X2,Y2 1 0 10X3,Y3 1 1 100
REGULADOR DE CORRIENTE
- Esquema elctrico + Topogrfico.
- Terminado componentes.
CARLOS DAMIAN LOPEZ HERRERO
88 april 2009 electronics for you w w w . e f y m a g . c o m
D. Mohan KuMar
reMote-operateD Master switch
tial divider comprising resistors R4 and R5 maintains half of 5.1V at pin 2 of IC1. In brief, the voltage at pin 2 of IC1 is higher than at pin 3 and its output remains low. LED2 remains off and transistor T2 does not conduct. Relay RL1 remains de-energised and, as a re-sult, security lamps (both indoors and outdoors) remain switched off.
When you press any key of the remote TV handset, IR rays fall on the
receiver (IRX1) and its output goes low. LED1 flas