Pembentangan Kertas Kerja: Pensyarah Menghadiri Pembentangan Kertas Kerja: Pensyarah Menghadiri...

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Transcript of Pembentangan Kertas Kerja: Pensyarah Menghadiri Pembentangan Kertas Kerja: Pensyarah Menghadiri...

  • Pembentangan Kertas Kerja: Pensyarah Menghadiri Konferensi/Worksyop Luar

    Negara (1/2018)

    Alifdalino Sulaiman (PhD) Jabatan Kejuruteraan Proses dan Makanan

    Chemical Engineers in Australasia (CHEMECA 2018), Queenstown, New Zealand

    Lawatan Ke The University of Auckland

  • The Journey AUCKLAND

    QUEENSTOWN

  • • Part 1 – Pembentangan kertas kerja di CHEMECA 2018

    • Part 2 – Lawatan ke The University of Auckland, New Zealand

  • Comparison Study on Ultrasound Assisted and Conventional Heating Extraction of Pectin from

    Jackfruit’s Waste

    A. Sulaiman, R. M. Arif, N.N.A.K. Shah & R. Shamsudin

    Department of Process and Food Engineering Faculty of Engineering

    Universiti Putra Malaysia 30 Sept – 3 Oct 2019 Queenstown, NZ

  • Jackfruits

    • Mastura cultivar vastly planted in Malaysia

    • Large no. fruits, large size – 500 fruits per tree and weighed up to 40 kg per fruit

    • Jackfruit of Mastura cultivar produces more than 70% of waste which could be utilized for production of high value products due to the availability of bioactive compound

    Background

    Flesh 20%

    Rags & Rind 40%

    seed 2%

    Others 38%

    JACKFRUITS COMPONENT (%)

  • Pectin

    Pectin is white to brown powder extracted from plant, especially citrus fruits. But other high carbohydrate fruit parts potentially having pectin.

    Mainly as gelling agent (jellies and jam) and stabilizer in fruit juices

    Background

    Carbohydrate content is the second highest after moisture out of total waste produce from jackfruits The waste could have pectin – can be extracted

  • CHE vs UAHE

    Background

    Heat Extraction (CHE)

    Heat extraction (60 -100˚C) for 0.5 to 6 hours – Too long depends on the properties of the materials being processed. Low yield, low efficiency – heat hydrolysis.

    Ultrasound Assisted Heating Extraction (UAHE)

    Ultrasounic waves cause molecules to move faster and increase rate of penetration of solvent into cells due to cavitation effect. FASTER physical process.

    Extraction liquid

    Jackfruit’s strip

    Water bath

    Package with Jackfruit’s strip and extraction liquid

  • Objective

    • To compare yield of pectin extracted from rags and rind of jackfruit by

    using Conventional Heating Extraction (CHE) and Ultrasound Assisted

    Heating Extraction (UAHE).

    • To model the kinetic of pectin extraction from rags and rind of jackfruit

    using CHE and UAHE method.

    • To determine the degree of esterification of the extracted pectin using

    UAHE and CHE.

  • Results analysis

    Yield calculation

    Pectin Drying

    Treatment

    CHE and UAHE

    Jackfruit’s powder

    preparation

    Experimental design

    Methodology

    Yield of Pectin: CHE vs UAHE

    Kinetic: First order – CHE vs UAHE

    Degree of Esterification

  • Extraction Treatments Methodology

    Heat Extraction Ultrasound Assisted Heat

    Extraction

    pH 1.5 using HCl

    Treatment Temperature of 30 - 80˚C

    Ultrasound treatment (400 W, 24 kHz) at 20, 30 & 40%

    amplitude

    Treatment time of 0 – 30 min

    Solid liquid ratio 1:20 g/ml

    Centrifuge for 3 mins at 900 rpm (4˚C); filtrate mix with 95% ethanol (1:1) for 2 hrs at 4˚C; centrifuge again to separate; oven dried at 40˚C

  • 0

    5

    10

    15

    20

    25

    0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35

    Yi el

    d (

    % )

    Time (min)

    Amount of Yield (%) against Time (min) for Temperature 80oC

    UAHE 20%

    UAHE 30%

    UAHE 40%

    CHE

    CHE vs UAHE on Pectin yield

    Results and discussion

    NO SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENT

    𝑃ectin yield(%)=(𝑚𝑜/𝑚)𝑥 100% mo : dried jackfruit powder (g) m : dried pectin extracted (g)

  • Effect of temperature on pectin extraction yield via ultrasound assisted treatment

    Results and discussion

    0

    2

    4

    6

    8

    10

    12

    14

    16

    18

    20

    0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35

    Yi el

    d (

    % )

    Time (min)

    Amount of Yield (%) against Time (min) for UAHE Amplitude 20%

    30 C

    60 C

    80 C

  • Kinetics

    Results and discussion

    First order

    ln (mo/m) = -kt

  • Degree of Esterification

    Results and discussion

    4000.0 3600 3200 2800 2400 2000 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 650.0

    3.2

    5

    10

    15

    20

    25

    30

    35

    40

    45

    50

    55

    60

    65

    70

    75

    80

    85

    90

    95

    100.0

    cm-1

    %T

    Jackfruit pectin (4)

    3900.74

    3855.73

    3823.77

    3748.00

    3653.37

    3609.80

    3361.26

    2923.92

    2334.55

    1916.99

    1843.68

    1741.70

    1641.86

    1543.27

    1496.78

    1437.55

    1372.69

    1230.75

    1023.65

    918.95

    824.66

    775.72

    694.31

    662.13

    • To determine the gelatinize characteristic of pectin

    • DE is the ratio of methyl-esterified carboxyl groups to the number of total carboxyl groups present

    • DE (%) = 𝐴1740

    (𝐴1740+𝐴1640)

    • Low Methoxyl Pectin DE50% - High

    sugar, low acid application • DE for CHE (pH=1.5, T=80

    oC, t=30min) is 53.28%

    • DE for UAHE (Amp=20%, T=60oC, t=30min) is 52.56%

  • Conclusion

    1. UAHE shows better extraction compared to CHE for example UAHE (pH=1.5, Amp=20%, T=80oC, t=10min) yielded 14.67% pectin compared to CHE (pH=1.5, T=80oC, t=30min) of 13.22%.

    2. First order kinetic model is reasonable to describe the pectin extraction yield for both treatment. Better rate of extraction was observed via UAHE than CHE.

    3. The DE (~53%) of jackfruit extracted in this study is classified as high methoxyl pectin (DE>50%).

    4. UAHE can be a potential greener process that can be further explored for tropical fruit waste extraction of bioactive compound especially jackfruit.

  • Lawatan ke

    • Host: Prof. Mohammed Farid • Lawatan ke Makmal • Jemputan sebagai penilai luar pada

    kitaran penilaian program seterusnya

    • Perbincangan berkisarkan penyelidikan – High pressure processing of food and

    other non-thermal techniques/hurdles

    – Energy: Phase change materials for food and other applications

  • Acknowledgement

    • Everyone who has contributed to this work; my team, technicians etc.

    • Bantuan Kewangan Menghadiri Konferensi/ worksyop di Luar Negara – Bahagian Akademik UPM

  • Terima Kasih | Thank You

  • Kept for further

    treatments

    Grind to

  • Kinetics Results and discussion First order

    ln (mo/m) = -kt