Menterjemah Lukisan Skematik

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MENTERJEMAH LUKISAN SKEMATIK KEPADA LUKISAN BERGAMBAR DAN MEMBUAT PROJEKOleh : Krysaid

C1R2R1R3LED 1++555timer+-

Circuit SymbolsWires and connectionsCircuit SymbolsCopyright All Right Reserved 2009 : kry... StudioWiresnotjoinedWiresjoinedWirePower SuppliesCircuit SymbolsCopyright All Right Reserved 2009 : kry... StudioCellBatteryDC supply-+Power SuppliesCircuit SymbolsCopyright All Right Reserved 2009 : kry... StudioFuse~AC supplyEarth(Ground)Circuit SymbolsCopyright All Right Reserved 2009 : kry... Studio

Push Switch(push-to-make)Push-to-Break SwitchOn-Off Switch(SPST)2-way Switch/On-on(SPDT)SwitchesSwitchesCircuit SymbolsCopyright All Right Reserved 2009 : kry... Studio2-way Switch/On-on(SPDT)

COMNONCResistorsCircuit SymbolsCopyright All Right Reserved 2009 : kry... StudioResistorRheostatPotentiometerPreset

CapacitorsCircuit SymbolsCopyright All Right Reserved 2009 : kry... StudioCapacitorCapacitor, polarisedVariableCapacitorTrimmer Capacitor+

DiodesCircuit SymbolsCopyright All Right Reserved 2009 : kry... StudioDiodeLEDLightEmittingDiodePhotodiodeZener Diode

MetersCircuit SymbolsCopyright All Right Reserved 2009 : kry... StudioVoltmeterGalvanometerAmmeterVAOhmmeter

Digital MultimeterAnalogue MultimeterOutput DevicesCircuit SymbolsCopyright All Right Reserved 2009 : kry... StudioMBuzzerMotorLamp(indicator)Lamp(lighting)

AudioCircuit SymbolsCopyright All Right Reserved 2009 : kry... StudioMicrophoneEarphoneLoudspeakerAmplifier(generalsymbol)

TransistorsCircuit SymbolsCopyright All Right Reserved 2009 : kry... StudioTransistorNPNTransistorPNPPhototransistor

Sensors (input devices)Circuit SymbolsCopyright All Right Reserved 2009 : kry... StudioLDR Light Dependent ResistorThermistor

Integrated Circuits (Chips)Circuit SymbolsCopyright All Right Reserved 2009 : kry... StudioIC M66TMelody ICIC 555Timer ICIC 741Operational Amplifier 5 1 2 3 4 8 7 6 3 2 1 2 3 7 4 6

Circuit DiagramsCellSwitchResistorLEDCapacitorWiresNotJoinedWiresJoinedExamples of Circuit symbols6V+6V+Drawing circuit diagrams The electronics way( + at the top ) The science way( battery at the top ) 1M100k220F0.1F9VLED 1LED 2470S133k555timer8426713Circuit Diagram12348765555XXXX+++X9VS1LED 2LED 10.1F220F1M33k100k470BleeperComponent Layout+-Verobod

Placing components on VerobodcomponentverobodCopper tracks

componentverobodCopper tracks

Designing a Verobod LayoutLUKISAN BERGAMBAR [litar verobod]Saiz grid sebenar verobod. Jarak lubang 0.1" (2.54mm)

Arus bergerak secara mendatarTips:

Letakkan [ IC ] di tengah verobod, kemudian tandakan laluan[track] punca positif [atas] dan negatif [bawah], Putuskan track di antara pin IC dan tandakan [ X ] pada gambarajah IC.Gunakan saiz grid sebenar verobod di sebelah kiri untuk memeriksa jarak komponen.Sentiasa utamakan keselamatan. [78/02] 2009 Hakcipta [email protected] Projek:Aspek:Disediakan oleh:Tarikh:Catatan:12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243441234567891011121314151617181920212223242526272829303132333435363738394041424344123456789101112131415161718192021221234567891011121314151617181920212227Planning the Layout 1Circuit Diagram9VLED 1R1Saiz grid sebenar verobod. Jarak lubang 0.1" (2.54mm)

Arus bergerak secara mendatar [78/02] 2009 Hakcipta [email protected] 123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930313233343536373839404142434412345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243441234567891011121314151617181920212212345678910111213141516171819202122

Tips:

Letakkan [ IC ] di tengah verobod, kemudian tandakan laluan[track] punca positif [atas] dan negatif [bawah], Putuskan track di antara pin IC dan tandakan [ X ] pada gambarajah IC.Gunakan saiz grid sebenar verobod di sebelah kiri untuk memeriksa jarak komponen.Sentiasa utamakan keselamatan.+LEDBC+_R147030Improve your planPlanning the LayoutCopyright All Right Reserved 2009 : kry... StudioSaiz grid sebenar verobod. Jarak lubang 0.1" (2.54mm)

Arus bergerak secara mendatar [78/02] 2009 Hakcipta [email protected] 123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930313233343536373839404142434412345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243441234567891011121314151617181920212212345678910111213141516171819202122

Tips:

Letakkan [ IC ] di tengah verobod, kemudian tandakan laluan[track] punca positif [atas] dan negatif [bawah], Putuskan track di antara pin IC dan tandakan [ X ] pada gambarajah IC.Gunakan saiz grid sebenar verobod di sebelah kiri untuk memeriksa jarak komponen.Sentiasa utamakan keselamatan.+LEDBC+_R147032Check your planPlanning the LayoutCopyright All Right Reserved 2009 : kry... Studio+LEDBCR1470Circuit Diagram9VLED 1R1470Planning the Layout 2Circuit Diagram9VLED 1ecbR 2TR 1S1R 1Saiz grid sebenar verobod. Jarak lubang 0.1" (2.54mm)

Arus bergerak secara mendatarTips:

Letakkan [ IC ] di tengah verobod, kemudian tandakan laluan[track] punca positif [atas] dan negatif [bawah], Putuskan track di antara pin IC dan tandakan [ X ] pada gambarajah IC.Gunakan saiz grid sebenar verobod di sebelah kiri untuk memeriksa jarak komponen.Sentiasa utamakan keselamatan. [78/02] 2009 Hakcipta [email protected] 123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930313233343536373839404142434412345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243441234567891011121314151617181920212212345678910111213141516171819202122

LED 1TR 1R1S1+bce+_R237Improve your planPlanning the LayoutCopyright All Right Reserved 2009 : kry... StudioSaiz grid sebenar verobod. Jarak lubang 0.1" (2.54mm)

Arus bergerak secara mendatarTips:

Letakkan [ IC ] di tengah verobod, kemudian tandakan laluan[track] punca positif [atas] dan negatif [bawah], Putuskan track di antara pin IC dan tandakan [ X ] pada gambarajah IC.Gunakan saiz grid sebenar verobod di sebelah kiri untuk memeriksa jarak komponen.Sentiasa utamakan keselamatan. [78/02] 2009 Hakcipta [email protected] 123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930313233343536373839404142434412345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243441234567891011121314151617181920212212345678910111213141516171819202122

TR 1bce+LED 1+_S1R2R139Check your planPlanning the LayoutCopyright All Right Reserved 2009 : kry... StudioTR 1R2R1bceS1LED 1BCCircuit Diagram9VLED 1ecbR 2TR 1S1R 141Planning the Layout 3Circuit Diagram9VLED 1ecbTR 1R 1ecbS1R 2TR 2Saiz grid sebenar verobod. Jarak lubang 0.1" (2.54mm)

Arus bergerak secara mendatarTips:

Letakkan [ IC ] di tengah verobod, kemudian tandakan laluan[track] punca positif [atas] dan negatif [bawah], Putuskan track di antara pin IC dan tandakan [ X ] pada gambarajah IC.Gunakan saiz grid sebenar verobod di sebelah kiri untuk memeriksa jarak komponen.Sentiasa utamakan keselamatan. [78/02] 2009 Hakcipta [email protected] 123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930313233343536373839404142434412345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243441234567891011121314151617181920212212345678910111213141516171819202122

bceTR 2becR2S1LED 1R1+BCTR 1+_Improve your planPlanning the LayoutCopyright All Right Reserved 2009 : kry... StudioSaiz grid sebenar verobod. Jarak lubang 0.1" (2.54mm)

Arus bergerak secara mendatarTips:

Letakkan [ IC ] di tengah verobod, kemudian tandakan laluan[track] punca positif [atas] dan negatif [bawah], Putuskan track di antara pin IC dan tandakan [ X ] pada gambarajah IC.Gunakan saiz grid sebenar verobod di sebelah kiri untuk memeriksa jarak komponen.Sentiasa utamakan keselamatan. [78/02] 2009 Hakcipta [email protected] 123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930313233343536373839404142434412345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243441234567891011121314151617181920212212345678910111213141516171819202122

bceTR 1LED 1+TR 2becS1+_BCR2R1Check your planPlanning the LayoutCopyright All Right Reserved 2009 : kry... StudioCircuit Diagram9VLED 1ecbTR 1R 1ecbS1R 2TR 2bceTR 1LED 1+R1TR 2becR2S1BC48Planning the Layout 4R1680kR210kR31k555timer+C110FLED8476213+Circuit Diagram9VSaiz grid sebenar verobod. Jarak lubang 0.1" (2.54mm)

Arus bergerak secara mendatarTips:

Letakkan [ IC ] di tengah verobod, kemudian tandakan laluan[track] punca positif [atas] dan negatif [bawah], Putuskan track di antara pin IC dan tandakan [ X ] pada gambarajah IC.Gunakan saiz grid sebenar verobod di sebelah kiri untuk memeriksa jarak komponen.Sentiasa utamakan keselamatan. [78/02] 2009 Hakcipta [email protected]

1234567891011121314151617181920212223242526272872930313233343536373839404142434412345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243441234567891011121314151617181920212212345678910111213141516171819202122++C110F

LED 112348765IC 555XXXX+_R31k

R210kR1680k51Improve your planPlanning the LayoutCopyright All Right Reserved 2009 : kry... StudioSaiz grid sebenar verobod. Jarak lubang 0.1" (2.54mm)

Arus bergerak secara mendatarTips:

Letakkan [ IC ] di tengah verobod, kemudian tandakan laluan[track] punca positif [atas] dan negatif [bawah], Putuskan track di antara pin IC dan tandakan [ X ] pada gambarajah IC.Gunakan saiz grid sebenar verobod di sebelah kiri untuk memeriksa jarak komponen.Sentiasa utamakan keselamatan. [78/02] 2009 Hakcipta [email protected]

123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627287293031323334353637383940414243441234567891011121314151617181920212223242526272829303132333435363738394041424344123456789101112131415161718192021221234567891011121314151617181920212212348765IC 555XXXXC110F

++LED 1+_R31kR1680kR210k53Check your planPlanning the LayoutCopyright All Right Reserved 2009 : kry... StudioR1680kR210kR31k555timer+C110FLED8476213+Circuit Diagram9VC110F

+12348765IC 555XXXX+LED 1R31kR1680kR210k555timer56Planning the Layout 5R1R2R4IC 555+C1LED 28467213R3LED 1S1+ 9V- 0VCircuit DiagramSaiz grid sebenar verobod. Jarak lubang 0.1" (2.54mm)

Arus bergerak secara mendatar [78/02] 2009 Hakcipta [email protected] 123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930313233343536373839404142434412345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243441234567891011121314151617181920212212345678910111213141516171819202122

Tips:

Letakkan [ IC ] di tengah verobod, kemudian tandakan laluan[track] punca positif [atas] dan negatif [bawah], Putuskan track di antara pin IC dan tandakan [ X ] pada gambarajah IC.Gunakan saiz grid sebenar verobod di sebelah kiri untuk memeriksa jarak komponen.Sentiasa utamakan keselamatan.12348765IC 555XXXX+_R1S1R4R3LED 1+LED 2+R2+C1BC59Improve your planPlanning the LayoutCopyright All Right Reserved 2009 : kry... StudioSaiz grid sebenar verobod. Jarak lubang 0.1" (2.54mm)

Arus bergerak secara mendatar [78/02] 2009 Hakcipta [email protected] 123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930313233343536373839404142434412345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243441234567891011121314151617181920212212345678910111213141516171819202122

Tips:

Letakkan [ IC ] di tengah verobod, kemudian tandakan laluan[track] punca positif [atas] dan negatif [bawah], Putuskan track di antara pin IC dan tandakan [ X ] pada gambarajah IC.Gunakan saiz grid sebenar verobod di sebelah kiri untuk memeriksa jarak komponen.Sentiasa utamakan keselamatan.12348765IC 555XXXX+_R1S1R4R3LED 1+LED 2+R2+C1BC61Check your planPlanning the LayoutCopyright All Right Reserved 2009 : kry... StudioR1R2R4IC 555+C1LED 28467213R3LED 1S1+ 9V- 0VCircuit Diagram12348765IC 555XXXXR1S1R4R3LED 1+LED 2+R5+C1BC555timerPlanning the Layout 61MR3100kC1220FC2 0.1F9VLED 1LED 2R2470S1R133k555timer8426713Circuit DiagramSaiz grid sebenar verobod. Jarak lubang 0.1" (2.54mm)

Arus bergerak secara mendatar [78/02] 2009 Hakcipta [email protected] 12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243441234567891011121314151617181920212223242526272829303132333435363738394041424344123456789101112131415161718192021221234567891011121314151617181920212212348765IC 555XXXXR133kC20.1FLED 2+LED 1++_R3100k1MR2470+C1220FX9V

S1BZ66Improve your planPlanning the LayoutCopyright All Right Reserved 2009 : kry... StudioSaiz grid sebenar verobod. Jarak lubang 0.1" (2.54mm)

Arus bergerak secara mendatar [78/02] 2009 Hakcipta [email protected] 12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243441234567891011121314151617181920212223242526272829303132333435363738394041424344123456789101112131415161718192021221234567891011121314151617181920212212348765IC 555XXXXR133kC20.1FLED 2+LED 1++_R3100k1MR2470+C1220F9V

BZXS168Check your planPlanning the LayoutCopyright All Right Reserved 2009 : kry... Studio

12348765IC 555XXXXR133kLED 2+LED 1+R3100k1MR2470+C1220F9VBZXS1C20.1F+++555timerPlanning the Layout 7R1R2R6R3R4

119VS1C2C15ceb87634215Circuit DiagramR5

LEDTRLSIC MuzikIC 55532COMNONCSaiz grid sebenar verobod. Jarak lubang 0.1" (2.54mm)

Arus bergerak secara mendatar [78/02] 2009 Hakcipta [email protected] [78/02] 2009 Hakcipta [email protected] 123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930313233343536373839404142434412345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243441234567891011121314151617181920212212345678910111213141516171819202122XXXXXR112348765IC 555R6C1+R2C2LED R4R3R5TR bceIC Muzik 213BC+_+

COMNONC73Improve your planPlanning the LayoutCopyright All Right Reserved 2009 : kry... StudioSaiz grid sebenar verobod. Jarak lubang 0.1" (2.54mm)

Arus bergerak secara mendatar [78/02] 2009 Hakcipta [email protected] [78/02] 2009 Hakcipta [email protected] 123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930313233343536373839404142434412345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243441234567891011121314151617181920212212345678910111213141516171819202122XXXXXR112348765IC 555R6C1+R2C2LED R4R3R5BC+_+TR bceIC Muzik 213

COMNONC9V75Check your planPlanning the LayoutCopyright All Right Reserved 2009 : kry... Studio

555timerCOMNOIC 55512348765R3+LED R1COMNOXTR R4R5bce213IC Muzik LSR2C2BCR6C1+XXXX77Planning the Layout 8Circuit DiagramC2LED 2LED 1++C1CebCeb9VS1132R1R2R3LS 1IC MuzikSaiz grid sebenar verobod. Jarak lubang 0.1" (2.54mm)

Arus bergerak secara mendatar [78/02] 2009 Hakcipta [email protected] 123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930313233343536373839404142434412345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243441234567891011121314151617181920212212345678910111213141516171819202122

80Planning the Layout 9S19V555timer8426133555timer842613S3S4S2R1470R210kR310kR510kR610kR81kR4470R71kC10.1FC20.1FC31FBuzerCircuit Diagram82Saiz grid sebenar verobod. Jarak lubang 0.1" (2.54mm)

Arus bergerak secara mendatar [78/02] 2009 Hakcipta [email protected] 123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930313233343536373839404142434412345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243441234567891011121314151617181920212212345678910111213141516171819202122

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