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tulen dan semula jadi


mudah diurai dan degradasikan


berasal daripada tumbuh-tumbuhan, haiwan atau tanah

Reka bentuk untuk fleksibiliti

Tidak mengurai dan didegradasikan dengan mudah

Ia biasanya dibuat daripada beberapa bahan semula jadi

Boleh diwujudkan oleh proses fizikal dan kimia CONTOH Tanah aloi,



Petroleum (Bahan Api)

bahan komposit,

Bahan-bahan bukan organik (batu)

bahan kimia industri,

Rencam (tanah liat, porselin)


Kayu (rotan, buluh, kulit kayu)


Logam (tembaga, gangsa, besi, emas, perak)

Gentian Semula jadi (benang bulu, sutera, kapas, flaks, hem, jut, kapok)

TOPIK 2 : FEUL Fuel is any material that can be used to generate energy to produce mechanical work in a controlled manner. The processes used to convert fuel into energy include chemical reactions, such as combustion, and nuclear reactions, such as nuclear fission or nuclear fusion. Fuels are also used in the cells of organisms in a process known as metabolism. Hydrocarbons are by far the most common source of fuel in current use, but many other substances can be used as well.

Fossil fuel Fossil fuels are hydrocarbons, primarily coal and petroleum (liquid petroleum or natural gas), formed from the fossilized remains of dead plants and animals[3] by exposure to heat and pressure in the Earth's crust over hundreds of millions of years[4]. In common parlance, the term fossil fuel also includes hydrocarbon-containing natural resources that are not derived entirely from biological sources, such as tar sands. These latter sources are properly known as mineral fuels. Fossil fuels release millions of greenhouse gases into the air, but they do have some benefits:

Provide electricity Fuel for our automobiles Energy for heating and cooling Very cheap

There are many disadvantages of using fossil fuels:

Produce greenhouse gases Non-renewable energy source Contribute to global warming Deplete the ozone Aid in acid rain

Crude Oil A mixture of a wide range of molecules which is pumped or mined from underground reservoirs. As a mixture it has very little value; too runny for paving, too thick for an engine. Fortunately each molecule boils at a different temperature, which is the basis of distillation.Fractional distillation of crude oil is the first step in the production of many of the materials we have come to rely on in modern life.

Petroleum Petroleum is a mixture of hydrocarbon molecules. The molecules have different sizes and numbers of carbon atoms. The small molecules have few carbon atoms and low boiling points, while the large molecules have many carbon atoms and high boiling points. In this form, petroleum is difficult to ignite and therefore is of little use. It must be refined to make useful fuels and chemicals. Petroleum is used for:

Heating homes Fueling cars Gum Crayons Dishwashing liquid Records

Fraction of crude oils and its uses Number of Carbon Atoms 3 or 4 Boiling Point (C) below 30


Uses Bottled Gas (propane or butane). Fuel for car engines. Solvents and used in petrol. Fuel for aircraft and stoves. Fuel for road

Refinery Gas


7 to 9

100 to 150

Naphtha Kerosene (paraffin)

6 to 11

70 to 200

11 to 18

200 to 300

Diesel Oil

11 to 18

200 to 300

vehicles and trains.

Lubricating Oil

18 to 25

300 to 400

Lubricant for engines

and machines. Fuel Oil 20 to 27 350 to 450 Fuel for ships and heating. Lubricants and candles. Road surface and roofing.

Greases and Wax

25 to 30

400 to 500


above 35

above 500


An ore is a type of rock that contains minerals with important elements including metals. The ores are extracted through mining; these are then refined to extract the valuable element(s). The grade or concentration of an ore mineral, or metal, as well as its form of occurrence, will directly affect the costs associated with mining the ore. The ores must be processed to extract the metals of interest from the waste rock and from the ore minerals. Ore bodies are formed by a variety of geological processes. The process of ore formation is called ore genesis.

MINERALS A mineral is composed of the same substance throughout. If you were to cut a mineral sample, it would look the same throughout. There are about 3000 different minerals in the world. Minerals are made of chemicals - either a single chemical or a combination of chemicals.

PROPERTIES OF MINERALS Characteristics used in the identification & study of minerals. These are the most common characteristics used when describing minerals.

Color this varies depending on the chemicals present and is the least informative in identifying a mineral variety

Luster what the surface looks like in the light Specific Gravity how heavy it feels, heft Crystal Form shape of crystal, shape the mineral would take if it had room to grow in a cavity, not massive some minerals have a number of different crystal shapes

Cleavage pattern when mineral is broken in planes or conchoidal

Fracture Tenacity - toughness, how cohesive the mineral is, if it falls apart Hardness what it can scratch & what scratches it Transparency - The ability to transmit light. Depending on a number of things, rocks & minerals can also transmit light. Many rocks that are opaque when in a chunk, are translucent when cut into very thin slices. Gems stones are often valued on how clear, or transparent they are.

Special Properties magnetism, chatoyancy, fluorescence, odor, streak, burn test, conductivity



alloy is as a material that's made up of at least two different chemical elements, one of which is a metal. An alloy is a combination, either in solution or compound, of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resultant material has metallic properties. Alloys are often used to enhance properties of a metal. Metallic elements are blended with other metals or non-metallic substances to give them special qualities, such as corrosion resistance, greater hardness or more strength. Alloys are made by melting the main metals and then dissolving the other substances in it.



Typical uses

Iron (50%+), aluminium (8Alnico 12%), nickel (15-25%), cobalt (540%), plus other metals such as copper and titanium.

Magnets in loudspeakers and pickups in electric guitars.


Mercury (45-55%), plus silver, tin, copper, and zinc.

Dental fillings.

Babbitt metal ("white metal") Tin (90%), antimony (7-15%), copper (4-10%). Friction-reducing coating in machine bearings.

Door locks and bolts, Brass Copper (65-90%), zinc (10-35%). brass musical instruments, central heating pipes.

Copper (78-95%), tin (5-22%), plus Bronze manganese, phosphorus, aluminium, or silicon.

Decorative statues, musical instruments.

Cast iron

Iron (96-98%), carbon (2-4%), plus silicon.

Metal structures such as bridge sand heavyduty cookware.

Cupronickel (copper nickel) Copper (75%), nickel (25%), plus small amounts of manganese. Coins.

Aluminium (94%), copper (4.5-5%), Duralumin magnesium (0.5-1.5%), manganese (0.5-1.5%).

Automobile and aircraft body parts, military equipment.


Copper (80-90%), tin (3-10%), zinc (2-3%), and phosphorus.

Guns, decorative items.


Magnesium, aluminium.

Nuclear reactors.

Firework ignition Nichrome Nickel (80%), chromium (20%). devices, heating elements in electrical


Shape memory alloy used in medical items, Nitinol Nickel (50-55%), titanium (45-50%). spectacle frames that spring back to shape, and temperature switches.

Ornaments, used to make Pewter Tin (80-99%) with copper, lead, and antimony. tableware before glass became more common.

Varies. Old-fashioned solders contain a mixture of tin (50-70%), lead (30-50%), copper, antimony, Solder and other metals. Newer solders dispense with lead for health reasons. A typical modern solder has 99.25 percent tin and 0.75 percent copper. Connecting electrical components into circuits.

Steel (general)

Iron (80-98%), carbon (0.2-2%), plus other metals such as chromium, manganese, and vanadium.

Metal structures, car and airplane parts, and many other uses.

Iron (50%+), chromium (10-30%), Steel (stainless) plus smaller amounts of carbon, nickel, manganese, molybdenum, and other metals. Jewellery, medical tools, tableware.

Coating for Stellite Cobalt (67%), chromium (28%), tungsten (4%), nickel (1%). cutting tools such as saw teeth, lathes, and chainsaws.

Sterling silver

Cutlery, jewelry, medical Silver (92.5%), copper (7.5%). tools, musical instruments.

White gold (18 carat)

Gold (75%), palladium (17%), silver (4%), copper (4%)


Wood's metal

Bismuth (50%), lead (26.7%), tin (13.3%), cadmium (10%).

Solder, melting element in fire sprinkler systems.


Aromatic hydrocarbons are a class of chemical substances which are characterized by having molecular structures which are called benzene rings. The chemically simplest aromatic hydrocarbon is benzene, and the structure of this hydrocarbon lent its name to the benzene ring. Many aromatic